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lect20 - Biology 427 Biomechanics Lecture 20 Gliding flight...

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Biology 427 Biomechanics Lecture 20. Gliding flight: a soar topic •Recap basics of lift and circulation •The consequences of aspect ratio •The lift coefficient (C L ) •Drag coefficients for wings •Drag and lift together (polar plots) •Gliding flight
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Lift and Circulation: Subtract the mean velocity from all of these vectors (P 2 - P 1) / ! = (u 1 2 - u 2 2 )/2
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Lift and Circulation: (P 2 - P 1) / ! = (u 1 2 - u 2 2 )/2 With the mean subtracted, there is and effective circulation ( " )about the wing. Greater " implies a greater velocity difference
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Message: lift can be measured by the amount of circulation held by a wing L = 2 ! ! U 2 c sin( # ) " = 2 ! ! U c sin( # ) L = ! U " Circulation is conserved (Kelvin’s circulation theorem) For every clockwise spin there is a counter clockwise one elsewhere in the fluid. Dilemma: create circulation and maintain it. Understand this in the context of flapping flight!
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Chord Span Aspect Ratio = Span 2 /AREA
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Circulation can be lost from the wing as a tip vortex Message: lift can be measured by the
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