ch6 - 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 Ionic Bonds and Some Main-Group...

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6 Ionic Bonds and Some Main-Group Chemistry 6.1 (a) Ra 2+ [Rn](b) La 3+ [Xe] (c) Ti 4+ [Ar](d) N 3 [Ne] Each ion has the ground-state electron configuration of the noble gas closest to it in the periodic table. 6.2 The neutral atom contains 30 e and is Zn. The ion is Zn 2+ . 6.3 (a) O 2 ; decrease in effective nuclear charge and an increase in electron-electron repulsions lead to the larger anion. (b) S; atoms get larger as you go down a group. (c) Fe; in Fe 3+ electrons are removed from a larger valence shell and there is an increase in effective nuclear charge leading to the smaller cation. (d) H; decrease in effective nuclear charge and an increase in electron-electron repulsions lead to the larger anion. 6.4 K + is smaller than neutral K because the ion has one less electron. K + and Cl are isoelectronic, but K + is smaller than Cl because of its higher effective nuclear charge. K is larger than Cl because K has one additional electron and that electron begins the next shell (period). K + , r = 133 pm; Cl, r = 184 pm; K, r = 227 pm 6.5 (a) Br (b) S (c) Se (d) Ne 6.6 (a) Be 1s 2 2s 2 N 1s 2 2s 2 2p 3 Be would have the larger third ionization energy because this electron would come from the 1s orbital. (b) Ga[Ar] 4s 2 3d 10 4p 1 Ge [Ar] 4s 2 3d 10 4p 2 Ga would have the larger fourth ionization energy because this electron would come from the 3d orbitals. 6.7 (b) Cl has the highest E i1 and smallest E i4 . 6.8 Ca (red) would have the largest third ionization energy of the three because the electron being removed is from a filled valence shell. For Al (green) and Kr (blue), the electron being removed is from a partially filled valence shell. The third ionization energy for Kr would be larger than that for Al because the electron being removed from Kr is coming out of a set of filled 4p orbitals while the electron being removed from Al is coming out of a half-filled 3s orbital. In addition, Z eff is larger for Kr than for Al. The ease of losing its third electron is Al < Kr < Ca. 6.9 Cr [Ar] 4s 1 3d 5 Mn [Ar] 4s 2 3d 5 Fe [Ar] 4s 2 3d 6 Cr can accept an electron into a 4s orbital. The 4s orbital is lower in energy than a 3d orbital. Both Mn and Fe accept the added electron into a 3d orbital that contains an 123
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electron, but Mn has a lower value of Z eff . Therefore, Mn has a less negative E ea than either Cr or Fe. 6.10 The least favorable E ea is for Kr (red) because it is a noble gas with filled set of 4p orbitals. The most favorable E ea is for Ge (blue) because the 4p orbitals would become half filled. In addition, Z eff is larger for Ge than it is for K (green). 6.11 (a) KCl has the higher lattice energy because of the smaller K + . (b) CaF 2 has the higher lattice energy because of the smaller Ca 2+ . (c)
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This note was uploaded on 08/27/2008 for the course CHEM 1280 taught by Professor Schmidt during the Fall '07 term at Toledo.

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ch6 - 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 Ionic Bonds and Some Main-Group...

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