ch7 - 7 7.1 (a) SiCl4 (b) CsBr (c) FeBr3 Covalent Bonds and...

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7 Covalent Bonds and Molecular Structure 7.1 (a) SiCl 4 chlorine EN = 3.0 silicon EN = 1.8 ΔEN = 1.2 The Si–Cl bond is polar covalent. (b) CsBr bromine EN = 2.8 cesium EN = 0.7 ΔEN = 2.1 The Cs + Br bond is ionic. (c) FeBr 3 bromine EN = 2.8 iron EN = 1.8 ΔEN = 1.0 The Fe–Br bond is polar covalent. (d) CH 4 carbon EN = 2.5 hydrogen EN = 2.1 ΔEN = 0.4 The C–H bond is polar covalent. 7.2 (a) CCl 4 chlorine EN = 3.0 carbon EN = 2.5 ΔEN = 0.5 (b) BaCl 2 chlorine EN = 3.0 barium EN = 0.9 ΔEN = 2.1 (c) TiCl 3 chlorine EN = 3.0 titanium EN = 1.5 ΔEN = 1.5 (d) Cl 2 O oxygen EN = 3.5 chlorine EN = 3.0 ΔEN = 0.5 Increasing ionic character: CCl 4 ~ ClO 2 < TiCl 3 < BaCl 2 7.3 H is positively polarized (blue). O is negatively polarized (red). This is consistent with the electronegativity values for O (3.5) and H (2.1). The more negatively polarized atom should be the one with the larger electronegativity. 7.4 (a) (b) 141
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7.5 7.6 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) 7.7 7.8 Molecular formula: C 4 H 5 N 3 O; 7.9 7.10 (a) (b) (c) (d) 7.11 (a) (b) (c) (d) 142
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7.12 7.13 (a) (b) (c) (d) 7.14 7.15 For nitrogen: Isolated nitrogen valence electrons 5 Bound nitrogen bonding electrons 8 Bound nitrogen nonbonding electrons 0 Formal charge = 5 ½(8) 0 = +1 For singly bound Isolated oxygen valence electrons 6 oxygen: Bound oxygen bonding electrons 2 Bound oxygen nonbonding electrons 6 Formal charge = 6 ½(2) 6 = 1 For doubly bound Isolated oxygen valence electrons 6 oxygen: Bound oxygen bonding electrons 4 Bound oxygen nonbonding electrons 4 Formal charge = 6 ½(4) 4 = 0 143
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7.16 (a) For nitrogen: Isolated nitrogen valence electrons 5 Bound nitrogen bonding electrons 4 Bound nitrogen nonbonding electrons 4 Formal charge = 5 ½(4) 4 = 1 For carbon: Isolated carbon valence electrons 4 Bound carbon bonding electrons 8 Bound carbon nonbonding electrons 0 Formal charge = 4 ½ (8) 0 = 0 For oxygen: Isolated oxygen valence electrons 6 Bound oxygen bonding electrons 4 Bound oxygen nonbonding electrons 4 Formal charge = 6 ½(4) 4 = 0 (b) For left oxygen: Isolated oxygen valence electrons 6 Bound oxygen bonding electrons 2 Bound oxygen nonbonding electrons 6 Formal charge = 6 ½(2) 6 = 1 For central Isolated oxygen valence electrons 6 oxygen: Bound oxygen bonding electrons 6 Bound oxygen nonbonding electrons 2 Formal charge = 6 ½(6) 2 = +1 For right Isolated oxygen valence electrons 6 oxygen: Bound oxygen bonding electrons 4 Bound oxygen nonbonding electrons 4 Formal charge = 6 ½(4) 4 = 0 7.17 Number of Number of Bonded Atoms Lone Pairs Shape (a) O 3 2 1 bent (b) H 3 O + 3 1 trigonal pyramidal (c) XeF 2 2 3 linear (d) PF 6 6 0 octahedral (e) XeOF 4 5 1 square pyramidal (f) AlH 4 4 0 tetrahedral (g) BF 4 4 0 tetrahedral (h) SiCl 4 4 0 tetrahedral (i) ICl 4 4 2 square planar (j) AlCl 3 3 0 trigonal planar 144
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7.18 7.19 (a) tetrahedral(b) seesaw 7.20 Each C is sp 3 hybridized. The C–C bond is formed by the overlap of one singly occupied sp 3 hybrid orbital from each C. The C–H
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This note was uploaded on 08/27/2008 for the course CHEM 1280 taught by Professor Schmidt during the Fall '07 term at Toledo.

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ch7 - 7 7.1 (a) SiCl4 (b) CsBr (c) FeBr3 Covalent Bonds and...

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