History Exam 3 Lecture NotesL1 4/5: Slavery & the Old SouthAbraham Lincoln: the great emancipator, a white supremacistHated slavery, but thought of blacks as inferiorWould go to war in 1861 to save the unionSaid he if he had to save the union with freeing no slaves or half of the slaves he wouldBelieved in Colonization: once slavery was over, America would have to rid itself of blacksDevelopment of the Old SouthTobacco, Slavery & the Chesapeake 1790-1820oSlavery is an economically dying institution in 1776 because tobacco isn’t as profitable & there is too many slaves and not enough work oThe new economy is based on growing wheat & corn, where the labor of women & children is not useful due to heavy machinery The Lowcountry 1790-1820: South CarolinaoAll of the North give up slavery, but South Carolina increases slave population to grow rice (major plantation crop), slave labor is demanded more oThe Constitution prohibited government to interfere with the slave trade for 20 years, SC deports a quarter of a million of slave trades during that timeoTask System: because growing rice in SC involved jobs for small groups of slaves (3-5 slaves), owners would give a time slot and then leave. Positive incentive: if salves worked hard & efficiently they earned hours of free time—some kind of control over their livesNew Farms: The Cotton BeltoCotton gin: cleans short staple cotton more efficientlyShort staple cotton: grew in the South, labor intensive before cotton ginoBritish demand: English Industrial RevolutionoSteam Boat: opens up commerce of cotton throughout the SouthoAs cotton production expands, the demand for slave labor increases. By that time, the African slave trade has been shut down, so they get their salves from Virginia where there is a surplus of slaves1,000,000 slaves disperse from Virginia from 1790-1860700,000 (70%) go through the Interstate Slave Trade—domestic slave trade, horrific, deprivation, loss of dignity When re-located slaves work harder than ever & the task system is abandonedAntebellum Southern Social Structure: The MythAntebellum: the South before the Civil War 1790-1860Gone With the Wind, Twelve Oaks, Tarao2 kinds of white folks: the wealthy plantation owners & “Poor White Trash”Planters: Cavalier image, wealthy plantation ownersSlaves: Racist stereotypes, content with their lives“Poor White Trash”: landless tenants, sick, lazy, dissolute, eat dirt, drunks, incestAntebellum Southern Social Structure: The RealityPlanters: Owners of 20 or more slaves; by 1860 there were 46,000 in a white population of over 8 million—46,000 out of 8 million total whites & 383,000 total slave-owners oCotton & slaves are big business—very profitable
Market Revolution is driven by cotton, most American exportsoDriving engine of American economy between 1815-1860oSouthern rights: positive defense of slaveryWhite Plain Folk (Southern yeoman): small middle-class farmers, work their own land, no slaves, majority of white populations—70%, Scots-Irish heritage o
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