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lecture19 - BioNB 221 Lecture 19 Oct 10 2008 Lecture 19...

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BioNB 221: Lecture 19 Oct. 10, 2008 Page 1 Lecture 19: Eusociality Professor Paul Sherman A. Social insects puzzled Charles Darwin for two reasons: 1. How did reproductive self-sacrifice evolve? (how could selection favor individuals that reproduced little or not at all?) 2. How did extremely specialized morphologies and behaviors evolve among individuals that never directly reproduced? B. Defining characteristics of eusociality (an entomological term meaning "true sociality"): 1. Group living 2. Reproductive division of labor (i.e., skew=not all individuals reproduce equally) 3. Overlap of > 2 generations (e.g., parent and offspring) 4. Cooperation in caring for young C. W.D. Hamilton's (1964) insights regarding relatedness asymmetries between female- offspring vs. full sister pairs among haplodiploid insects (ants, bees, and wasps); see also Alcock (p. 468), and Honeycutt (EAB, p. 300). The 3/4 relatedness of full sisters can also be calculated using Reeve’s “painted allele” method.
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BioNB 221: Lecture 19 Oct. 10, 2008 Page 2 D. In support of Hamilton's haplodiploidy hypothesis:
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