lecture21

lecture21 - (Figure 2 p 38 BioNB 221 Lecture 21 Oct 17 2008...

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BioNB 221: Lecture 21 Oct. 17, 2008 Page 1 Lecture 21: Conflict and Cooperation in Social Groups Professor H. Kern Reeve A. Actual Versus Potential Conflict Using Hamilton's rule to analyze conflict: Let M be a manipulative strategy and C be the cooperative alternative strategy in a social group of N individuals. If M (instead of C ) is performed, group members related by an average relatedness r to the manipulator each experience a change R in their reproductive output, and the manipulator experiences a change S in its own reproductive output. By Hamilton's rule, M is favored over C if r(N-1) R + S >0 A potential conflict occurs if R < 0 and S > 0 (in the absence of interference by other group members). This potential conflict may not result in actual conflict if 1. policing by other group members sufficiently reduces S 2. the genetic relatedness r is sufficiently high 3. R is sufficiently negative (and R > 0) from Ratnieks and Reeve, 1992, J. Theor. Biol., 158: 33-65; Academic Press, Ltd.
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Unformatted text preview: (Figure 2, p. 38). BioNB 221: Lecture 21 Oct. 17, 2008 Page 2 B. Queen policing of lazy workers in naked mole-rats C. Policing among wasp foundresses From Reeve, 1992, Nature 358: 147-148; Macmillan Magazines, Ltd. a (Table 1, p. 147); b (Table 2, p. 148); c (Figure 1, p. 148). From Reeve, 1992, Nature 359: 823-825; Macmillan Magazines, Ltd. a (Figure 1, p. 824); b (Table 1, p. 825). BioNB 221: Lecture 21 Oct. 17, 2008 Page 3 D. Genetic conflicts in human pregnancy Mother's relatedness to fetus = 1/2 Mother's relatedness to other offspring = 1/2 Fetus' relatedness to itself = 1 Fetus' relatedness to siblings = 1/4 to 1/2 Some pregnancy-related diseases (e.g., pre-eclampsia) may be a manifestation of mother-fetus conflict over fetal nutrition. Placental characteristics appear to be encoded by paternally imprinted genes : Maternal gene's relatedness to siblings= 1/2 Paternal gene's relatedness to siblings = 0 to 1/2 ! BioNB 221: Lecture 21 Oct. 17, 2008 Page 4...
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lecture21 - (Figure 2 p 38 BioNB 221 Lecture 21 Oct 17 2008...

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