Lecture1_Note

Lecture1_Note - 1 Chapter 1 Matter Measurement and Problem...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Chapter 1 Matter, Measurement, and Problem Solving (1.1-1.8) Lesson 1 Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 2 For example, C: Carbon Na:Sodium Cu:Copper Co:Cobalt S: Sulfur Hg: Mercury Sn:Tin Au:Gold Element : Pure substances that are composed of only one type of atom. All elements are shown in the periodic table. Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 3 Compound : Pure substances that are composed of two or more different elements. Elements Compounds For example, C: Carbon + O:Oxygen = CO:Carbon Monoxide Na:Sodium + Cl:Chlorine = NaCl: Sodium Chloride 2H (H 2 ):Hydrogen + O:Oxygen = H 2 O: Water Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 4 Classification of Matter • _________ is anything that has mass and occupies space • we can classify matter based on whether it’s _______, _______, or ________ Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 5 Classifying Matter by Physical State • matter can be classified as solid, liquid, or gas based on the characteristics it exhibits State Shape Volume Compress Flow Solid Fixed Fixed No No Liquid Indef. Fixed No Yes Gas Indef. Indef. Yes Yes • Fixed = keeps shape when placed in a container • Indefinite = takes the shape of the container Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 6 Mixtures : Samples of matter consists of two or more substances Heterogeneous Mixtures : uneven texture of the material Homogeneous Mixtures : completely uniform texture of the material 2 7 Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 8 Matter Pure Substance Mixtures Compounds Elements Homogeneous Mixtures Heterogeneous Mixtures • Gas • Liquid • Solid Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 9 Atoms : The smallest particle of an element “retains the chemical properties” Mass is 10- 27 g -- 10- 24 g !! Atomic Structure Electron clouds Nucleus Neutron Proton 10 –15 m 10 –10 m Three subatomic particles Electrons : negatively charged particles Protons : positively charged particles Neutrons : uncharged particles Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 10 Changes in Matter • changes that alter the state or appearance of the matter without altering the composition are called __________________ • changes that alter the composition of the matter are called _________________ ü during the chemical change, the atoms that are present rearrange into new molecules, but all of the original atoms are still present Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 11 Physical Changes in Matter The boiling of water is a physical change. The water molecules are separated from each other, but their structure and composition do not change. Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 12 Chemical Changes in Matter The rusting of iron is a chemical change. The iron atoms in the nail combine with oxygen atoms from O 2 in the air to make a new substance, rust, with a different composition. 3 Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 13 Properties of Matter • physical properties are the characteristics of matter that can be changed without changing its composition ü characteristics that are directly observable...
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This note was uploaded on 08/28/2008 for the course CHEM 116 taught by Professor Yokoyama during the Fall '08 term at SUNY Geneseo.

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Lecture1_Note - 1 Chapter 1 Matter Measurement and Problem...

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