Lecture3_Note

Lecture3_Note - Lesson 3 The outermost electrons of an atom...

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1 Chapter 2 Atoms and Elements (2.7-2.9) 2008, Prentice Hall Lesson 3 Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 2 of an atom determine most of its chemistry, because those electrons are more strongly affected when other atoms approach. nucleus electrons electrons Atom 1 Atom 2 ___________________ Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 3 Periodic Table • Elements are arranged by atomic numbers • Elements with similar chemical and physical properties are in the same column or ü designated by a number and letter at top • each period shows the pattern of properties repeated in the next period ________ ___________ ___________ Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 4 A Group – 7 main group elements B Group - 10 transition elements (metals). 57-71: lanthanide elements, 89-103: Actinides, >103: artificial radioactive, and short-lived 3B 4B 1B 2B 1A 2A 3A 7A 8A Similarities occurs with a periodicity of seven. 1st 2nd 3rd Periods 4th 5th 6th 7th Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 5 • Bottom Rows = Inner Transition Elements = Rare Earth Elements ü metals ü really belong in Period 6 & 7 Patterns in Metallic Character = Metal = Metalloid = Nonmetal
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2 Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 7 Metals • solids at room temperature, except Hg • reflective surface ü shiny • conduct heat • conduct electricity • malleable ü can be shaped • ductile ü drawn or pulled into wires • lose electrons and form cations in reactions • about 75% of the elements are metals • lower left on the table Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 8 Nonmetals • found in all 3 states • poor conductors of heat • poor conductors of electricity • solids are brittle • gain electrons in reactions to become anions • upper right on the table ü except H Sulfur, S( s ) Bromine, Br 2 ( l ) Chlorine, Cl 2 ( l ) Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 9 Metalloids • show some properties of metals and some of nonmetals • also known as
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Lecture3_Note - Lesson 3 The outermost electrons of an atom...

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