ch_10_christendom - CHAPTER 10 The Worlds of Christendom...

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CHAPTER 10 The Worlds of Christendom: Contraction, Expansion, and Division 500–1300 CHAPTER LEARNING OBJECTIVES To examine European society after the breakup of the Roman Empire To compare the diverse legacies of Rome in Western Europe and the Byzantine Empire To explore medieval European expansion To present the backwardness of medieval Europe relative to other civilizations, and the steps by which it caught up CHAPTER OUTLINE I. Opening Vignette A. Over the past 30 years millions have converted to the Christian faith in East and South Asia. 1. similar process in non-Muslim regions of Africa 2. 60 percent of Christians today live in Asia, Africa, and Latin America B. In 500s and 600s, Christianity also had flourishing communities across large regions of Afro-Eurasia. 1. but over next 1000 years African and Asian communities largely vanished, declined, or were marginalized 2. Christianity became a largely European phenomenon C. By 1300 C . E . Christianity provided common ground for third-wave societies in western Eurasia. 1. but Christendom was deeply divided: Byzantine Empire and West 2. Byzantium continued the traditions of the Greco-Roman world until conquered in 1453 C . E . a. Eastern Orthodoxy evolved within this third-wave civilization 3. Roman imperial order disintegrated in the West 4. Roman Catholic Church of the West established independence from political authorities; Eastern Orthodox Church did not 217
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218 C HAPTER 10 • T HE W ORLDS OF C HRISTENDOM : C ONTRACTION , E XPANSION , AND D IVISION
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C HAPTER 10 • T HE W ORLDS OF C HRISTENDOM : C ONTRACTION , E XPANSION , AND D IVISION 219 5. Western Europe emerged, at an increasing pace after 1000, as a dynamic third-wave civilization 6. Western Europe was a hybrid civilization: classical, Germanic, Celtic D. The story of global Christendom in the era of third-wave civilizations is one of contractions and expansions. 1. sharp contractions in Asia and Africa 2. expansion in Western Europe and Russia 3. Christian Byzantium contracted and ultimately disappeared 4. Western Europe contracted but later expanded II. Christian Contraction in Asia and Africa A. Islam’s spread was a driving force in the contraction of Christianity. B. Asian Christianity 1. within a century or so of Muhammad’s death, Christianity almost disappeared from Arabia 2. Islamic forces seized Jerusalem and its holy sites 3. in Syria and Persia many Christians converted voluntarily a. those that didn’t were granted the right to practice their religion for payment of a special tax b. experiences of individual communities varied 4. Nestorian Christians or the Church of the East survived but shrank in size in Syria, Iraq, and Persia a. Nestorians had some success in Tang China, before ultimately withering b. brief revival under Mongols C. African Christianity 1. coastal North African Christians largely converted to Islam 2. in Egypt Coptic Church survived a. tolerated by Muslim rulers b. until the Crusades and Mongol threat when repressed c. most rural Coptic Christians convert, survived in urban areas and remote
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