Lab report (Exp 1)

# Lab report (Exp 1) - Sneh Chauhan Experiment 1 –...

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Sneh Chauhan Experiment 1 – Separation of Metal ions by Paper Chromatography Name – Sneh Hemantkumar Chauhan Student number -1003522636 Tutorial Section-0136 Date performed– 22/9/16 Date submitted -29/9/16 TA - Khalid Shamiyah 1

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Sneh Chauhan Introduction All substances differ according to their solubility in a given solvent. The solubility of each substance is dependent on the polarity of the solute and the solvent. The aim of the experiment was to separate metal ions through the process of paper chromatography which is used for qualitative analysis of substances. It is used to identify substances from a given mixture based on its solubility in a solvent. The main principle 1 of chromatography is that each sample goes through the mobile phase where they start rising on the chromatography paper and then stop at a point. This phase where the sample becomes stable is known as stationary phase. All the samples are separated due to their relative affinities towards each phase. The metal ions are separated based on their affinities, which also affects the rate at which they are separated. After all the metal ions are separated, they can be distinguished by calculating the R f values of the colored spot on the chromatography paper. After this is obtained, the unknown ions present in the mixture can be identified by comparing the R f values of the colored spots with the standard ones of ions on the chromatography paper. The R f (retention factor) value can be calculated by dividing the total distance of the sample by the total distance of solvent moved. R f = Distancemoved bythe sample Distancemoved bythe solvent The independent variable in this experiment were the metal ions (Manganese ion, Iron(III) ions, Copper ions, cobalt ions, unknown metal ions and 5 cation mixture) in aqueous solutions which reacted with aqueous ammonia in the chromatogram. The dependent variable was the R f values of the metal ions which are further used to identify the unknown metal ion. The controlled variables in this experiment are the room temperature, the concentration of ammonia and the solvent, volume of the solvent in the chromatography chamber, concentration of HCl in the developing solvent(6M) and its ration with acetone (1:9). There are many types of chromatography like Thin-layer chromatography, Gas chromatography, Paper chromatography etc. which all have real life applications. Chromatography 2 is used by pharmaceutical companies in order to find new substances present in various drugs. It is widely used to trace contaminants in waste oils and pesticides such as DDTs. Equations of the metal ions reacting with aqueous ammonia Mn +2 (aq) + 2NH 3 (aq) + 2H 2 O(l)  Mn(OH) 2 (s) + 2NH 4 + (aq) Fe +3 (aq) + 3NH 3 (aq) + 3H 2 O(l)  Fe(OH) 3 (s) + 3NH 4 + (aq) Co(H 2 O) 6 2+ (aq) + 2NH 3 (aq)  Co(H 2 O) 4 (OH) 2 + 2NH 4 + (aq) (
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