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Running head:African American HistoryName:Title:Subject:Date:IntroductionThe white Southerners were not pleased with the adoption of 13th Amendment after theend of the civil war. This can be attributed to the fact slavery had come to an end, and they weregoing to live and work equally with blacks with whom were they portrayed as inferior (Hine et.al, 2013). Consequently, this leads to the emergence of Jim Crow laws in the southern states tomaintain the status quo. This is essay going to focus on Jim Crow laws and its effect on the blackcommunity. Further, the impact of Grandfather clause and the black code will also be discussed.The Jim Crow laws were ordinances and statues that were meant to separate the blacksfrom whites in the American. In theory, the law was mandated to ensure separate but equal rightsfor the African American (Burch, 233). However, this was not the case in practice as the lawcondemned the blacks where they received inferior facilities and treatment. Education, transportand other utilities were separated with the blacks receiving a lower-grade. The blacks wereunhappy, and this led to a series of protests and demonstrations to resist the draconian laws.These protests were aimed at creating a fair ground for all the races, and this can be reflected thepresent day America. There is equality in all aspects of life, and the African American also havethe right to vote. Protests organized by the civil right movement in the 1960s prompted PresidentJ.F Kennedy to present a bill to the Congress in 1963 that proposed the federal protection of the