Biology 102 Notes3 - BIOL 102 Lecture 11 INTRODUCTION TO...

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BIOL 102 Lecture 11: INTRODUCTION TO ECOLOGY The study of ecology is how organisms interact with their environment. There are different factors that are involved such as, biotic (living) and abiotic factors (non-living: sunlight, temperature). o Organismal ecology: Physical and behavioral adaptations that allow individuals to survive in their environment. How does the individual fit in and deal with their environment. o Population ecology: How and why the number of individuals in a population changes over time. What influences how many of the species there are? o Community ecology: Interaction between species and the consequences of those interactions. Who eats who? o Ecosystem ecology: How the nutrients and energy move among organisms and through surrounding soil and water. How it moves through the ecosystem. Where it comes from. Trophic levels : Organisms are organized based on their food source. o Autotrophs: Make their food with inorganic nutrient and an outside energy source. Also called producers. They are critical because it takes energy from abiotic factors and creates energy for everyone else. o Heterotrophs: Get their food from another source. Also called consumers, but some are decomposers, but they absorb their food from dead organic material. Primary consumers: Eat producers (herbivores). Secondary consumers: eat herbivores (carnivores/ omnivores) Tertiary consumers: Eat secondary consumers. Decomposers: absorb their food from dead organic material (fungi or bacteria). Photosynthesis: Producers preform this process to make high-energy organic molecules using low energy inorganic molecules. Chemosynthesis: Producers make food without using sunlight. It allows organisms to produce glucose using heat and high-energy inorganic molecules. Cellular respiration : all organisms use high-energy organic molecules to produce cellular energy. Every tropic level uses this. Organic molecules to energy and inorganic molecules. Organisms use the energy they acquire with maintenance (replace worn out cellular components, transport materials in/out of cells…you need energy just to be alive) and
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growth (extra energy can be used to grow or reproduce). Gross (total) primary productivity (GPP) measures the total organic matter created by producers in an ecosystem (ex. Photosynthesis). Net (everything you keep) primary productivity (NPP) is the net organic matter created by producers in an ecosystem (photosynthesis- respiration or gross-lost=net). This has to do with how much energy is made, but actually can be used. Food chain: follows the flow of energy from one trophic level to the next. There is no energy cycle. Energy is being used but not lost. Food web: Multiple food chains. It shows the complexity of the trophic levels because it shows all of the possible sources of energy. Helps us see energy move up the food web.
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