part 2 of bionotes2 - Lecture 9 DIVERSITY OF LIFE Taxonomy...

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Lecture 9: DIVERSITY OF LIFE T axonomy is associated with identification, naming and categorizing of living things. A taxon is a grouping of organisms of the same traits. Carolus Linnaeus is the father of taxonomy who created a hierarchical system to organize living things. Each organism had a two- word name that is italicized. The first was genus: capitalized and the next was species: not capitalized. Linnaeus fist created a two-kingdom system (plants and animals) and organized based on morphological features (structure). However, fungi were later discovered and so were prokaryotic cells. o T axonomic levels created by Linnaeus where domain (inclusive), kingdom (kung), phylum (pao), class (chicken), order (or), family (fried), genus (green), and species (shrimp) (exclusive). Whittaker eventually created a five-kingdom system that was still based on morphology. There flaw was that things were grouped together that shouldn’t be. Kingdom Fungi (multicellular, absorbs food), Animalia (multicellular, eats food), Plantae (multicellular, makes food), and Monera (unicellular, prokaryotic). Domains: o Bacteria: Can cause disease o Archaea: Cannot cause disease o Eukarya: Highest level in Domain. Only multicellular. Phylogeny is the evolutionary history of a group of organisms and shows the degree of relatedness. The phylogenetic tree shows the ancestor-descendent relationship among species. o A node is where two branches diverge and is also the point when an ancestral species splits into descendant species (speciation). o Ancestral traits are features inherited from a common ancestor and derived traits (are not from a common ancestor) Monophyletic group is an evolutionary unit that includes an ancestral population and all of its descendants. One complete group. A synapomorphy is found within the monophyletic group and it is a point that represents a shared, derived trait. Paraphyletic group includes all of the ancestral population, but not all of its descendants because of a loss of trait. Incomplete monophyletic group. Polyphyletic group is an unnatural group that does not include the most recent common ancestor. Analogous traits are the places highlighted because they are not from a common ancestor. A homoplasy is similarity in organisms due to reasons other than
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common ancestry, which what the graph shows. Convergent evolution could be applied. C ladistics shows the history of organisms ( phylogeny ) by shared, derived traits to develop a hypothesis regarding the evolutionary history of species. It attempts to apply the principle of parsimony to a set of traits to construct a cardiogram. Parsimony is the simplest solution and does the fewest number of steps in the graph. Phylogenetic trees based on molecular data also use parsimony and are set up relatively similar. However, sometimes the two don’t match.
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