LA STUDY GUIDEEnglish orthographyis the alphabetic spelling system used by the Englishlanguage. Unlike most languages, Englishprovides more than one way to spell nearly every phoneme, and most letters and letter-combinations can stand for different pronunciations depending on context and meaning. This is why English is called deep orthography: Ex. Yatch, eight, dumbAlphabetic PrincipleChildren's reading development is dependent on their understanding of the alphabetic principle – the idea that letters and letter combinations represent the sounds of spoken language. Learning that there are predictable relationships between sounds and letters allows children to apply these relationships to both familiar and unfamiliar words, and to begin to read with fluency.Phonemic awarenessPhonemic awareness is the ability to hear and manipulate individual phonemes. Phonemic awareness is the realization that within a word are individual sounds or phonemes.Phoneme -smallest unit of sound that changes the meaning of a word. For example, “cat”, if we change /k/ /a/ /t/ to /k/ /a/ /p/ the meaning of the word will change completely. Each phoneme in a language has variants, they are called allophones. Allophones– different pronunciations a phoneme can have without changing the meaning of the word.A phonemeis a set of allophonesor individual non-contrastive speech segments. Allophones are sounds, while a phoneme is a set of such sounds.Allophone For example,[p ]ʰ(as inpin) which is aspirated and[p](as inspin) are allophones for the phoneme/p/.Phoneme For example, p/i/n, if we change the phoneme /p/ for /t/ we get t/i/n, which changes the meaning of the word.
Be able to count the number of phonemes in words.Phoneme – smallest unit of sound that changes the meaning of a wordSay the word, stretch the word, I count the sounds and I think about the vowelEx: said – s/E/d; think – th/i/n/kEx: think, thing, thin, crash, crab, itch, add, well, edge (answers: 4,3,3,4,4,2,2,3,2)The easiest are CVC which are short lax words, 3 letters long (hat, cat, sat)A digraphis a multiletter spelling (usually 2 letters) for a single phoneme. Digraphs can be consonants (ck, ll, tch, ng) or vowels (ee, ew, igh, ow). Either way, the combination stands for one mouth move.Why is it important to understand allophones?Helps to interpret spelling and reading patterns of children.Helps us understand how certain sounds and symbols are confusable.If you are using different allophones you may be misunderstood and won’t sound fluent.GraphemeA written representation of a sound using one or more letters.Grapheme: Letters or letter combinations (first grapheme in mother is m)-Graphemes can be made up from 1 letter e.g. p, 2 letters e.g. sh, 3 letters e.g. tch or 4 letters e.g ough.