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The 18 Electron Rule

The 18 Electron Rule - The 18 Electron Rule References Gray...

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The 18 Electron Rule References: Gray: chapter 5 OGN: chapter 18
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H Li Na K Rb Cs Fr Be Mg Ca S r Ba Ra Sc Y La Ac T i Z r Hf V Nb Ta Cr Mo W Mn Tc Re Fe R u O s Co Rh Ir N i Pd Pt Cu A g A u Zn Cd Hg B A l Ga I n Tl C Si Ge Sn Pb N P As Sb B i O S Se Te Po F C l Br I A t He Ne A r Kr Xe Rn Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm B k Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Element Groups Alkali metals Transition metals Alkali earths Halogens Inert or Noble gases Lanthanides Actinides
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Geoffrey Wilkinson E. O. Fischer Nobel Prize, chemistry, 1973 “For their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds” The Chemists
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Cr 18 e - Rule for Transition Elements • Remember the dot structure for CO? C O C O • Consider Cr, a transition element: Chromium: [Ar] (4s) 2 (3d) 4 6 valence e - • Like most transition elements, Cr needs 18 e - in its shell. C O C O C O C O 12 e - from CO’s + 6 e - from Cr = 18 total e - ; formula is Cr(CO) 6 Dot structures can predict molecules; if we are given an exception, we can explain its existence, and figure out some of its chemical properties. C O O C C O -1 +1
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Using the 18 e - rule • Given that H 2 Fe(CO) x exists, what does x equal? Iron: [Ar] (4s) 2 (3d) 6 8 valence e - Hydrogen: (1s) 1 1 valence e - • Fe wants to have 18 e - , because it’s a transition element, but it only has 8. The H’s give 2 e - , but we still need 8 electrons.
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