Hybridization #1

Hybridization #1 - Hybridization Part 1 Reading: Gray:...

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Hybridization Part 1 Reading: Gray: (4-1), (4-2), and (4-4) OGN: (16.2)
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MO-LCAO works great for diatomic molecules! But. .. What about other numbers of atoms? The story so far: Will MO-LCAO work for polyatomic molecules?
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Let’s try BeH 2 We know: • BeH 2 is a linear molecule, by VSEPR. • The electron configuration of BeH 2 is H H Be Be: 1s 2 2s 2 H: 1s 1 1s 2s 2p 1s Bond angle: 180°
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H Be BeH 2s 1s 2p σ * π n σ b σ b BeH σ * σ b σ b π n σ * π n σ * σ b H BeH 2 Make MO s: First bond H and Be to form BeH Next bond H and BeH to form BeH 2 The MO’s for BeH 2 are complicated and hard to work with.
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Attempt to make a graphical model of BeH 2 : Are any of these models reasonable? ? 2s 1s 1s Be H H + Be: 1s 2 2s 2 2s 2p z + + 2s z H H 1s 1s + + H: 1s 1 1s + H: 1s 1 1s + z H H + 1s 1s
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These two are no good: One orbital can’t hold four electrons ? 2s 1s 1s Be H H + Be: 1s 2 2s 2 2s 2p z + + 2s z H H 1s 1s + + H: 1s 1 1s + H: 1s 1 1s + z H H + 1s 1s Attempt to make a graphical model of BeH 2 :
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90° This one is no good: According to VSEPR, the bond angle should be 180°. ? 2s 1s 1s Be H H + Be: 1s 2 2s 2 2s 2p z + + 2s z H H 1s 1s + + H: 1s 1 1s + H: 1s 1 1s + z H H + 1s 1s Attempt to make a graphical model of BeH 2 :
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Unfortunately, none of these models make sense. ? 2s 1s 1s Be H H + Be: 1s 2 2s 2 2s 2p z + + 2s z H H 1s 1s + + H: 1s 1 1s + H: 1s 1 1s + z H H + 1s 1s Attempt to make a graphical model of BeH 2 :
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Maybe if we blended the orbitals together. .. hybridized the orbitals. .. 2 sp hybrids + 2s 2p z + z + + 2s Be
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Hybridization in terms of electron configuration: 2p z 2s 1s 2s 2p y x 1s Decouple electron pair Be Unhybridized
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1s 2s 2p 2sp hybrids 2p y x z 2s 1s 2sp z+ 2sp z- Create hybrid orbitals Hybridization in terms of electron configuration: Be Hybridized
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Bonding with a Hybrid Orbital: The sp hybrids act individually to form MO’s with each hydrogen atom: H H E E σ b E H Ψ Ψ Ψ
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This note was uploaded on 08/31/2008 for the course CH 1a taught by Professor Lewis during the Fall '08 term at Caltech.

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Hybridization #1 - Hybridization Part 1 Reading: Gray:...

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