Transition Metals

Transition Metals - Chemistry and Spectroscopy of the...

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Unformatted text preview: Chemistry and Spectroscopy of the Transition Metals Bonding of d-orbitals Color/Spectroscopy Magnetic Properties Electron Transfer Chemistry 1s 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s 7s 1s 2p 3p 4p 5p 6p 3d 4d 5d 6d 4f 5f Organization of Periodic Chart Shielding A 3s electron penetrates the 1s orbital better than a 3p electron r 2 2 r 1s 3d 3p 3s Penetration: 3s > 3p > 3d Faraday (1830): discovered this phenomenon and determined the charge to mass ratio of ions Transition Metals Are Found in Several Oxidation States M + M + M + M + Charge to mass ratio of ions: current which passes through circuit divided by mass gained on electrode. Ammeter e- H Li Na K Rb Cs Fr Be Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra Sc Y La Ac Ti Zr Hf V Nb Ta Cr Mo W Mn Tc Re Fe Ru Os Co Rh Ir Ni Pd Pt Cu Ag Au Zn Cd Hg B Al Ga In Tl C Si Ge Sn Pb N P As Sb Bi O S Se Te Po F Cl Br I At He Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Exceptions to Filling Order 23. V (4s) 2 (3d) 3 24. Cr (4s) 1 (3d) 5 25. Mn (4s) 2 (3d) 5 40. Zr (5s) 2 (4d) 2 41. Nb (5s) 1 (4d) 4 42. Mo (5s) 1 (4d) 5 Exceptions occur because electrons dont like to pair up in orbitals; so the highlighted atoms have lower energy. 4s 3d 2s 2p 3s 4s 3d 3p 4p H Li Na K Rb Cs Fr Be Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra Sc Y La Ac Ti Zr Hf V Nb Ta Cr Mo W Mn Tc Re Fe Ru Os Co Rh Ir Ni Pd Pt Cu Ag Au Zn Cd Hg B Al Ga In Tl C Si Ge Sn Pb N P As Sb Bi O S Se Te Po F Cl Br I At He Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Exceptions to Filling Order 23. V (4s) 2 (3d) 3 24. Cr (4s) 1 (3d) 5 25. Mn (4s) 2 (3d) 5 40. Zr (5s) 2 (4d) 2 41. Nb (5s) 1 (4d) 4 42. Mo (5s) 1 (4d) 5 Exceptions occur because electrons dont like to pair up in orbitals; so the highlighted atoms have lower energy. 4s 3d 2s 2p 3s 4s 3d 3p 4p H Li Na K Rb Cs Fr Be Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra Sc Y La Ac Ti Zr Hf V Nb Ta Cr Mo W Mn Tc Re Fe Ru Os Co Rh Ir Ni Pd Pt Cu Ag Au Zn Cd Hg B Al Ga In Tl C Si Ge Sn Pb N P As Sb Bi O S Se Te Po F Cl Br I At He Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr All Metal Ions Have d n Configurations 23. V (4s) 2 (3d) 3 24. Cr (4s) 1 (3d) 5 25. Mn (4s) 2 (3d) 5 23. V(II) (3d) 3 24. Cr(III) (3d) 3 25. Mn(IV) (3d) 2 4s 3d 2s 2p 3s 4s 3d 3p 4p Cr Cr(III)-3e- H Li Na K Rb Cs Fr Be Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra Sc Y La Ac Ti Zr Hf V Nb Ta Cr Mo W Mn Tc Re Fe Ru Os Co Rh Ir Ni Pd Pt Cu Ag Au Zn Cd Hg B Al Ga In Tl C Si Ge Sn Pb N P As Sb Bi O S Se Te Po F Cl Br I At He Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr All Metal Ions Have d n Configurations 40. Zr (5s) 2 (4d) 2 41. Nb (5s) 1 (4d) 4 42. Mo (5s) 1 (4d) 5 5s 4d 2s 2p 3s 4s 3d 3p 4p 40. Zr(II) (4d) 2 41. Nb(III) (4d) 2 42. Mo(III) (4d) 2 Nb Nb(III)-3e- Alfred Werner Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1913...
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This note was uploaded on 08/31/2008 for the course CH 1a taught by Professor Lewis during the Fall '08 term at Caltech.

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Transition Metals - Chemistry and Spectroscopy of the...

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