Hicks-Intro and Chap 1-pt 1

Hicks-Intro and Chap 1-pt 1 - x111...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–16. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 2
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 4
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 6
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 8
Background image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 10
Background image of page 11

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 12
Background image of page 13

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 14
Background image of page 15

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 16
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: x111 "99901381011911: 10 £111.19 913111 12 19pun 3111911119911 19111111011113 1d13p12 pun A1ddte 01 119139911 3111111121519131111 91.11 d019Aap U133 519199101 8110110111 19111:. 31119111115 112111 31101131391119 9111 1111111 p9z1sn11d1u9 SUB s1d99u09 9111 (191111211 911111113111115 13001111311211 101 110011)1009 12 911 01 p9pu91u1 1011 $1 51111 11111 "3191111110 1311121 9113/1111} 1121.11s11p111110u 11131119 01 911311d01dde 9501.11 A11e199d59 “pa-551193113 911: 9111911112911 112.111111'19111113 91211d01dd1a pun p91o1dx9 9112 u01391 9111 10 11291d1{1 513111315 S9199ds 19910111 9111 10 591111131119 9111111111 9111 '1101110d 91111111901113 9111 101 953913 9111 5.198 51111 13935119511) 9112 99199115 10113111 911110 391131.191312112119 1133111115; 9111 pun ‘5199101 19001111111311 113111199 01 911139ds s99u1a1§111 1111M 1391211911111 912 s1d99u03 11131801099 113191193 ‘1x91u09 111 sd11191101113191 11291301099 9111 9913111 01 19p1291 91.11 591qeu9 p9d019A9p 931110391 13001111311111 113111193 9111 11101110 8u1pu21s19pun 11V 3991191111111 11121111111 pun 31112111113098 1110q 10 11111591 9 513 p9d019A9p 11 M011 pm; 19910} 111911119 9111 101 su0111p110991d 9111 s9q119s9p z 191d12113 u1 110139113311) 112911015111 9111 'sueumq Aq 139199111! 111113911321 u99q 09113 9111311 A9111 30911100111109 31112111119 pus 91801093 11911110 1111391 12 A1110 1011 912 1101891 poompmq 11211u93 9111 10 3139101 A1131od111911109 9111 '950112 159.101 9111 M011 101 1.101121391611113 LIB 01 $191391 1191111“ ‘M013 ((9111 113111111 111 10911100111109 9111 1111M 139191 -9110:> 9q A11p1391 11129 s9dA1 19110:) 139.103 '511011d11359p 91116131809301111111 9111 101 pu11013>1913q 13 9p1A01d 9112111119 pm; ‘51109 ‘A80109E ‘Aqda1801s/(L1d 1.10 811011395 9111 ‘91du11ax9 10:1 811011911111 111915A9039 p00Mp11311 9111 MOL[ 10 3111pu121s19p11n 1113 101 A1253999u pu1101fi>191aq 9111 10 11191116101911913 1911911 101 51110112 05112 11 1101891 9110 11121.11 910111 191109 113111 s>100q 101 91q1ssodu11 9131 131110111 12111 9812191109 10 111d9p 12 511w19d 1101891 13001111911311 19111199 9111 110 31115113051 ‘391199 )100qpu1a1_1 12111111111311 ngn 9111 59 113115; ‘59911919191 10 s1x91 91011113111119 11319093 99916191 01 111139111 1011 91 11111 30011 9911919191 13112 11191 12 SB p9pu91111 s1 11 91111391191911 121101391 E 1181101111 9130011131211 112111199 9111 10 [10111201103119 111d9p-111 111a s9p11101d >100q 51111 u0113np011u1 31%: ¥ Introduction Chapter 6 of the book attempts to place silviculture in the broader context with emphasis on methods appropriate to the small nonindus- t is, what can the landowner afford to do? How can ly and ensure a perpetual yield of products (both 0 it within limits that will not cause of management, trial private landowner. Tha landowners manage responsib commercial and noncommercial) and d irreparable damage to the ecosystem? In Chapter 7, a summary and synthesis of the previous chapters is developed, which leads to recommendations for managing central hardwoods. In this chapter an attempt is made to better define the role of the professional resource manager in implementing biologically sound management of central hardwood forests. Hopefully, this book will help foresters in the region to be better resource managers through better understanding of the resource and will promote sound silvicultural—based management— management that is both profitable and protective of long-term forest health and productivity. Braun's (1950) Regions E3 1 Mixed Mesophytic 2 Western Mesuphytic E 3 Oak - Hickory 4 Oak — Chestnut 2;: D 125 250 500 ‘rniles FIGURE 1 The central hardwood region of the United States. In the continental United States, 43 percent of the forest growing stock is hardwood (57 percent softwood), but 90 percent of the hardwood is located in the central hardwood region (Powell et al. 1993). Due, in part, to the high proportion of private land ownership, 40 percent of the unreserved (available for harvest) forestland in the United States occurs within the eastern hardwood region and 74 percent of all eastern forests are classed as hardwoods (Powell et al. 1993). Although the central hardwoods are very diverse, certain species tend to predominate regionally. For example, oaks (Quercus spp.) and oak-hickory forests are found throughout the region but are most abundant in the middle latitudes. Maples [sugar (Acer sacchnrum Marsh.) and red (A. rubrum L.)] are most abundant in the northern portion of the region. Yellow-poplar (Lirioden- u9111d ‘99111d5n :51910991 551111951 111 1191129119111 950111 Buoum 59199115 311111101101 9111 1991511 (€661) 11051191111913 9191111115 91751 9111 .101 59911 55911111111 33 1191110991 5111191 51119111110111 11119111391151 pue 9819111 9111151 9111 19935019 911 512 1121111101r 12 111991 ‘X12_1.1113_.1 19.101 01 11 931091) 3091 1110.11 11112.18 1911131 12 p9112911119p 112111 9u1—1 11121111251 9111 10 510219111115 911110 9110 ‘51M9'1 5121110111 'p91119111119019 11111391111u9195 1011 118110111112 ‘1101112198911 11101112 11011911110101 10 99.11105 19008 12 9.11: 5110011 131911 ‘SJOKQAJHS ("11109 19911211111119 A1q12c101d 131211 5u121p111 9.1911111 519191} 1910 99111110 0M1 191112 1012911 2111901 191112 511119 1119} 12 101 11199119 159101 1112 5211111 ‘911215 9111 01111 9111119 15111 119111 91111111 11911le)) :311111215 512 11015511011103 1101112111951103 12111131111 1591111 911110 1101191 19111129 1112 59119 [0151) 5)1001g 591111111912 LIBLUDLI Aq 199111190111 111121111121511115 1199q 11191291112 111211 5129112 111112u1 11111 ‘1101391 poompmq 112111199 9111 10 11911111 1n01181101111 199151119 15910} 115111 12 112111 11995 9q 11129 11 “51101191 959111 11.10111 11011221110109 111291101113 ‘191112 11005 19115 ‘10 911111 91.11 112 199151119 112111 u01391 19001111911211 112111199 9111 10 5159101 9111 199q1195919 5191011113 19112 510119111115 11111251 '591109 191112 519911512 15129 191112 1111011 110 Bu1 -1121111110199111 51900111191211 911111111059111 191112 ‘5981911 19111101 pu12 5199d512 81119121-1111105 110 511130 ‘511011511919 19113111 112 51900111191211 u191111011 1111M 9d1295pu121 9111 5501912 911250111 11911111109 12 9911190111 1101115011 91311115 p012 ‘199dse ‘u01112A919 10 5199119 9111 ‘ne91121g 11911199126111; 19919955119 9111 191112 51111211010111 93pm 911151 9111 512 119115 ‘529112 111 91129119111 191110111 51111 1112111 112919 5591 51 111111291 9111 111g '591912 1101111111 91; 211111990 (51300111191211 11191111011) L1911q—11999q—91d12111 9111 19119 151231 9111 u1 591912 1101111111 £31 5191109 9dA1 159101 1101911191120 9111 ‘(g561) '112 19 11911103 01 81111910991; “'spoomp11211 9111(11d0591u 199111111” 9111 52 (0961) 111112111 Aq 01 199119191 91111 191109 19120.1q 9111 111 591991215 A9>1 9111 51 191112 su1211191a113ddv 112.11u99 9111 111 11121911111112 150111 51 ('1 11141111111111 1101p '(E661 '18 19 H9M0d 111011) 5911213 119111111 111915129 9111 111 pu121139101 p9A19591un 1.10 51111013 911111 159.103 z Hurling (WI 021 001 08 09 017 DZ 0 5dn01‘3 911m 191110 911111 119121—1191-911111111 9111d q5915-15913u0'1 p00muo1103-11512—u11g qoxgq-uadsv 11149111113 ssaIdAo-9u1d—11120 stud-1190 11911111099191de 9u1d 11291110115-51101110'1 mam->150 11013911 poompmH 113121133 2111 Ecology and Management of Central Hardwood Forests (red spruce), “sugartrees” (sugar maple), “beach” (American beech), “birch,” “cherry” (black cherry), and “pine.” Notably missing from this list is oak, although Lewis’s route took him through higher elevations where northern hardwoods would predominate. Another surveyor’s account is provided by Robert Love ( 1795), regarding his observations in present-day western North Carolina. He states: The land consists of Vallies {sic} and Mountains and not more than one fifth of which can be called poor land and is all the best watered Country I ever saw. The General Growth of the Timber is walnuts black and white, Locusts, Sugar Trees, Buck Eyes, Lymes, poplars and Oaks of every description; the black and white Hickory grows very plentiful—a Great Number of Wild Cherry and Cucumber Trees are to be found throughout our lands. 1 have observations in my field Books of Buck Eyes measuring thirteen feet round the Body and black walnuts near the Same Size. These were found in plenty in running the line without searching out on either side as well on mountains as in the Vallies. Early botanists and explorers, such as John Bartram and his son William, provide insight into the early forests of the central hardwood region. In a published journal of his 1751 trip through Pennsylvania, John Bartram describes the “production” of the Ridge and Valley section as "some wild grass, abundance of oak and chesnut [sic] trees.” In a nearby valley, he described “good low land with large trees 5-leaved white pine, poplar and white oak.” He described an area in New York as "a great white pine-spruce swamp full of roots and abundance of old trees lying on the ground, or leaning against live ones, they stood so thick that we concluded it almost impossible to shoot a man at 100 yards distant." Using the number of times a species is mentioned in John Bartram’s (1751) journal as indicative of the species’ abundance, oaks were most abundant (20 percent of references), followed in order by white pine (10 percent), spruce, chestnut [Castanea demote (Marsh) Borkh.], and hickory (Caryn spp.) (7 percent each), sugar maple, basswood (Tilia spp.), and pitch pine (6 percent each), and birch (Betula spp.), beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.), elm (Ulmus spp.), white walnut, and poplar (4 percent each). William Bartram (son of John) provided a well-documented account of his travels through the southeastern portion of North America, including the so-called Cherokee Mountains. He noted the similarity of vegetation in the area (present-day northern Georgia, eastern Tennessee, and western North Carolina) with that of more northern latitudes. He states: I passed again steep rocky ascents and then rich levels, where grew many trees and plants common in Pennsylvania, New—York and even Canada, as Pinus strobus. Pin. sylvestris, Pin. abies, Acer saccharum, Acer striatnm, s. Pennsylvanicnm, Popular tremolo, Betala nigra, Iuglans alba; but what seems remarkable, the yellow Jessamine (Bignonia semper— virens), which is killed by a very slight frost in open air in Pennsylvania, here, on the summits of Cherokee mountains associates with Canadian vegetables and appears moving with them in perfect bloom and gaiety. 'Eunomg quoN go sue;q32{eddV maqmos am 11] 15910] uqmmfl} p10" g mining '(986I P199 41311111) pun Umxng} (g 'ng) sungqa‘el‘eddv umqmos mp, 310 manual; 1saq81q 91p 112 52912 News I0; Manx; ‘JaAo 1m uaaq 11811 1101391 pOOMplEq 12.111133 9L[1 u; Jaqwg qmoxB p10 31.11 1112 Apeau SOfifiI sq; Ag 'JaqumI JO '1; 'pq 009‘21 pauye1u03 1mg ‘egugBJgA 139M ‘Amnog Hemoqaw LI} ma lBIdOd-MOHQA e 01 319591 (0161) 55100.13 ‘53311 50 9219 sq], aq pII‘IOM 331131935113 paaunoumd 150w sq; sdeqlad mq ‘uaqcuqun 150mm Buyaq ‘Aapm s; 1; ueql aAgsuama 9.10m SEM 1931031 {Bungo 91p Ampaan 'A‘epol s; 1} Imqu 1101831 ugmunow Auaqfianv 9111 u! 1u2punqe 3.10m 313M augd algqm mamas ‘(66g[) mowed pue Bugppzdg 01 Bugploaoe pUB ‘QJQM Kaql 1113111 11121301 peastapgm pm: JLIBPUHQE 3.10m Annaledde am 9120 'uogfieu poompmq [Enuaj 9111 u; 3199.10; AEp-masald mo 01 SAEM .Iaqlo Auem u; pue uopgsodmoa sapads u; Januus 9.19M mamas meadomg 131g 31.11 Aq palalunmua 533910; aql naql 991133113111 5110631 359111 q3n01q1 papmmd aauspyxa eql uagfiag poompmH puzan azfl Ecology and Management of Central Hardwood Forests PHYSIOGRAPHY The central hardwood region is situated in an area that, in the main part, is associated with the Appalachian system and, except for the northwestern portion, is unglaciated (Fig. 4). The primary physiographic regions of the central hardwoods are the Blue Ridge, Ridge and Valley, Appalachian Plateaus, Central Lowland, Ozark Plateau, and Ouachita provinces (Fenneman 1938). The Blue Ridge is the easternmost province in the central hardwood region and begins in the south in northern Georgia and extends into southeastern Pennsylvania. Through Virginia, the Blue Ridge narrows to form a prominent ridge, hence the name “Blue Ridge.” The highest elevations in the eastern United States occur in the Blue Ridge section of western North Carolina. Mount Mitchell in the Black Mountains just northeast of Asheville rises to a height of 6711 ft. above sea level and, like many of the tallest peaks in the Appalachians, is vegetated with a relic spruce—fir forest. Immediately north and west of the Blue Ridge is the Ridge and Valley Province. It extends from central Pennsylvania in the north to northern Georgia and Alabama. The Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri are similar topographically to the Ridge and Valley Province, and several authors believe that they are part of a common feature, part of which is buried in northern Alabama and Mississippi (King 1950; Petersen et al. 1980; Hubler 1995). The Ridge and Valley section is very old and geologically complex, having been uplifted, faulted, folded, and eroded. The ridges are long and narrow with narrow valleys through Pennsylvania, western Maryland, and West Virginia (Fig. 5). They broaden southward to form the valley of the Shenandoah in Virginia and the Tennessee farther south. Few rivers have breached the Ridge and Valley, but the New River and Susquehanna and Tennessee Rivers have done so. These are all very old rivers that have developed spectacular water gaps in cutting through the mountains as they were uplifted (Fig. 6). Most of the rivers that flow through the Ridge and Valley form a distinctive trellis drainage pattern with parallel streams running down the main valleys and tributaries intersecting at right angles flowing off the ridges (Fig. 7}. The Pine Mountain overthrust, located in northeastern Tennessee and extending into eastern Kentucky, is an interesting feature in the Ridge and Valley. In this region, a 17—mileiwide piece of the Ridge and Valley has ridden over onto the Appalachian Plateau. This is the rugged headwaters of the Cumberland River and the location of an important corridor for plant, animal, and human migration, the Cumberland Gap. The Ouachita Mountains that extend west of the Mississippi River from Arkansas into eastern Oklahoma are similar in topography to the Ridge and Valley and share many floristic similarities. Lying north and west of the Ridge and Valley is the Appalachian Plateau. A prominent escarpment (the Appalachian Front}, extending from Pennsylvania through Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, and Tennessee, divides the Plateau from the Ridge and Valley. The northern portion of the Plateau is called the sunmlnow mguonno q KamzA susuuxJV l3 asupxmd muman sumunuw umsug q (mogfiuudg put: wauzg flugpnpug) mmqu 31,1320 1: Interior Highlands puuldn unnummeq 9:11 JO IJL’U nupuuldn Jogjadng uoywas 331330 j S‘Ullilci IILL P9133330 3 11011335 mag EunoA mans-3M p uouoas 53-3“qu 3 “ONGOS SUUIId [ILL q [muons mnr] 112mg 1: plum/“0'1 [1man ‘ uuuoas aaumuug p ugxug alums-1w a uognas ssufianlg q nlzauzld >1.qu0 ' '31 '0l 0‘ Appalachian Highlands UDUDQS tum PUL’Illng 1: mugnmd nummd MD’] .IO_I.I:)]11] '3 QDU!AO.Id anlzpumwv ',.'_ pummnj pJuoquag a (fiumd fiuypeau Buypnlnu!) puujdn pitelfiug MQN p 11011395 3]1u)312_]_ a magmas ugmunow uamg q uounas ugmunow mm,“ 1: anu;no.ld pungfiug maN '9 nuamld [)UBlJquLuflD 3 sugulunow punlJaqan J uunaas amuuow a suguumow “msmg p nnamjd Kuslfinnv pamgmzlg 3 numwd Auaqfianv pawpvlfiun q uonagg ugmunow Kuaufiauv 12 aaugnmd snuamgd ueyuoulnddv 'g '(8‘261 uxzwauuad 11101;) 591913 polyun 11191393 aq; JIo suouoas pun seaugnmd aqumfinysfiqd Sugmoqs (Jaw 1, 380315 magmas lLI'JLfJI'lDS 3 uuunasnlppgw q llogmas uguldlumD-uosan 1: uogmas malnnug q unglaos mauuoN Ia punimr] lllOllea]d q pumdn zumupagd 12 Appalachian Highlands “Md IBISL‘ODJIHD 159M .l ugeH |l21_Arl[[V gddgssgssgw a ugujd [12131203 “119 13-1231 1} uoglaasuugpumd a uogmas puulsl 1:35 q uouans pafiuqmg B uch 112151203 SNOILOEIS CINV SEIONIAOHd OlHdVHOOISAHd :JO dVW H05 CINEIBE'I NOIQEH QOOMOHVH ‘IVHLNEO {II 53H“-I 005 093 531 uoyfiag pooMpwH [twan a“ 4x KN {— "\ I; \\ 3|, 4 _ 2H Q‘D‘JM- \* mar/'3 ‘ \x a 9?" E aaugnmd KQHUA pun 93pm ' aauumd mowpagd ' naugnmd 38pm anla ' ’ r.- (‘1 "I FIGURE 5 The Ridge and Valley physiographic province. The linear ridges resulted from faulting and folding. This province extends from Georgia to Pennsylvania and is a significant feature in the central hardwood landscape. FIGURE 6 The New River Gorge ofWest Virginia is one of the oldest physiographic features in the Appalachian landscape. The New River still maintains its entrenched meanders originating from the time the river flowed over a level plain. 10 u018311 951318311113 3111 131113 ‘33553111131 111 u1s1351 31111111an 3111) 3133113 11131111110111 0M1 111 A11B133d33 13113 1101331 31011111 3111 13210 1101113131318 1310121 310111 3511133 01 1113131111119 SEM 811111113311 311 L 11311; 1131111131113 3111 11311133 1335111311 1931111111105 -1SE9L[1.IOLI 13 u1 113311311111 1111113115 put: 133111131311 59m 11133113151 3111 ‘19:)!“ 1311p. 1111011 131111133 '(01 81:1) 131u13A1As11113d 1113133ML111109 13112 ‘01110 111313133 131111311111 15311 13110331111011 10 11311111 10 1133111111 ‘1111011 3111 111 511111 1311101 3111 01 1113111 531118 11011335 111313133 13383111 3111 ‘111331131d 3111 8110113 p113M153M111.10u 31111101111 'u1131d3u3d 13111133 1113 10 3811S3A 13 1113 11133113111 131131 3111 10 111311 1131 51311 5111133115 311113013 113113 10 811111113 11113111110311 3111 ‘(31111-3311 10 3111113113131 113313111 ue11132113ddv 311110 1E31d/K1 u131113d 331311113113 13 1111M 1311111 131113113121an 3111 10 s13113mp13311 3111 .1133u 133113 51111 10 110113301 3111 p1113 3113115 131103 Aq 11113113131111 31101311123 un1unA1Asuu3d 1311311 13 10 33u3331d 3111 A11 11101113 11131101q 31 311111331 31111 111111 1311131118111 13311133709 3111 3111111101 131u13c1131v 01111 1.11m); 3111131131113 ‘31111133013 10 1531111 3111 01 3111330 1113111d1133s3 1u311111101d V ‘3353311u31 3113131111 111 3111111111013 1311110113 133113 311110 193111111 ‘111331131d 13111311311an 3111 01111 3113111111 11133113111 1113111313113ddv 3111 '(6 '815) 5133113. 333111 10 1u3111d013A3p 31111011033 3111 Ho 33u31111u1 10113111 13 131311 51311 113111 1013131 13 ‘d331s 131113 13338111 A1311 s1 21313111113} 111319123 111113 131111811A 153M 11131111105 111 11131111110115] 211131331153 ‘111331131C1 3111 10 u01133s 111313133 311 1 1113311313 pue113q111113 3111 13311133 31 11 ‘A313n1113)1 01111 pun 3399311113; 1131101111 l11011339 u13111nos 3111 111 '(3 £151) 311011131313 311313130111 131113 81111310} 311u33 Aq 13321913212113 51 131113 111131131d 11113113311111 ‘s1113111313113ddv 112111133 3111 u1 33111110111 31111113130151.1111 [(311311 131113 3311111 13313101 3111 10 M9111 11311311 1 111111915 111113311 1900111191191; 311111133 3111 l 10 Ecology and Management of Central. Hardwood Forests ——'i>2 500 miles FIGURE 8 The Appalachian system of the Middle Atlantic region (redrawn from Eardley 1951} l l l Kentucky). Both of these areas are characterized by level to rolling topography l and contain many karst areas with sink holes, caves, and underground streams. E ‘ Immediately surrounding these karst zones are the rolling hills of the Pennyroyal : sections of middle Tennessee and Kentucky. Along the southwestern side of the E Cincinnati Arch in western Tennessee and Kentucky is the gently rolling [ topography of the Interior or Low Plateau sloping off toward the Mississippi E River (Fig. 11). l To the north lay the Central Lowlands that form hilly sections in southern indiana and southern Illinois. The topography levels northward toward the Great Lakes, and, in this zone of Indiana, Illinois, and Ohio, the effects of glaciation are evident in the topography, with level to rounded features. 'aasssuual 30 mseg QmAqSEN sq: 0m! 1110 fiumoq mam syql u! 1113p 3:11 01 3A2] [133121.51 punpaqwng 3111 SP. UMOLDf manna u121q3913ddv aqua uopaas V 01 awning "aaugnmd neamld umngnddv paqasssgp at“ u; 11181191 daals JO '1; 000‘0: tum; magn [ELEV 6 gamma [1 Mafia}; paompmH puguag 21L; 12 woodlots. FIGURE 11 Ecology and Management of Central Hardwood Forests The gently rolling landscape of central Kentucky is characterized by agricultural fields and farm In northern Arkansas and southern Missouri, the Boston Mountains and Ozark Plateau form a topography that corresponds to that of the Appalachian Plateau. Like the Appalachian Plateau, the Ozark Plateau is a dissected peneplain with a dendritic (tree-like) stream drainage pattern where dissection has progressed headward along major streams, leaving the least eroded zone toward the interior. GEOLOGY The physiographic features described previously are a function of several factors [underlying rocks, tectonic movement, climate, and time). All these factors have been at work in the central hardwood region and have strongly influenced the present topography, soils, and vegetation. Although the earth’s crust (lithosphere) appears solid, it is underlain by semifluid and liquid materials around the center of the earth, and, through imperceptibly slow movement, the crust of the earth is constantly changing. These changes are described by the plate tectonic theory of crustal movement. Geologic time has been divided using “unconformity” periods, or breaks in the stratigraphic record, to define the beginning and ending of the major periods (Table 1). Although the earth is believed to be about 4.6 billion years old, most of the rocks that occur under the central hardwood region are derived from sediments that were deposited over the area between 300 and 500 million ’(0861 '11: 1a U351313d 1 L11de 1121111115 12 01 1101831 3111120 1(1213-1u3531d 3111 113131103 531301 [lB1dd1gg1gg1W 13112 ‘31313111 0091 10 1111131) 13 01 11101311A 133M 131112 ‘121u12A1Asuu3d 51.1011 M3N Map—111353.1d 10 1210111 133131103 A111131de12 50130.1 11121111113 ‘31d11112x3 10:1 113313 A1311 3.13M 911131211 [31101115011313 QSQLLL '(9661 131(111H) 311215 13111: 3112113 31111133121 A1213 10 1311111 131111 311131211 3111 01111 811111139 13111; 31101spu12's 11311110] p31u31u3331 p111: 13313013 313111 113111 5313111311 1311123 '3u01s311111 s12 5111sec1 3111 o1u1 13311501131) 131112 13112111111131 31131313 111 133111033113 311213111111 3110311331113 13313n13111 5111311111333 151313 51113111110111 11313311393111 1n0 3.131.111 133110330 12111 su1s12q 113313 111 p91190d3p 313M put: 5111121u110u1 31111131011 118111 10 11013013 111011 1131111331 93u3u11133§ 393111 0312 9133A '(9661) 12>}an Luog paldepv 33.11103 909—069 11121111111121) UFP’SOS HEDFAOPJO SOffiOW un11n115 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 7 7 7 7 W _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 7 7 7 7 W _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 7 7 7 _ _ _ _ _ _ 8131—069 09‘; *8017 UBIHOAQG a'lozoelud 983* 099 sn013311u0q1133 8fZ-98Z HEImJQd W 21 z—svz 31359111. """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" ' ' 997317: 7 17171751: 383mm 3102033w 99—11171 31103321313 ——_.__—.—_—_— 9173—99 I 99— Q9 3113303112.} M31113; A1123 "1 ' 10 31133031ch gg—gg 31133051 . _ Z—9'17Z 9 W '89 9119303110 muml am 579 W QUQDOIW 10 311330351 Z-S aUBI’OEId 10-0—3 {33V 331) 31133015131d 11135313: 1113531d—gg Juasaud— 1 0‘0 (1113333) 3113301011 11113111312110 310201133 ————__.——__—_— SWHA :10 SNOITHIAI 31—13033 300111351 SW3 ——_—_—__________ 3.112311 10 511011111/11 111 113.1113 53112G 11111.11 11121.13 31111; 31801035) 1 311311; 91 11013211 poo/11111191.] 11111an 3111 14 Ecology and Management of Central Hardwood Forests Sometime during the Permian period, the continents all drifted together to form the supercontinent Pangaea (Fig. 12). It was during this time that much of the force that created the Appalachian and Ouachita systems was brought to bear (Table 2). The continents of Africa and South America were pressing on North America from the east and south. This forced the land to raise and uplift, exposing the sediment basins as land masses, and through intense and constant pressure caused the faulting and folding that developed into the mountain systems of the eastern United States. The faulting and folding of the Ap- palachians are correlated strongly with similar events that formed the Ozark! Ouachita systems at about the same time [King 1950). However, the former probably resulted from pressure of the African continent and the latter from South America. The original uplifted mountains were many times higher than FIGURE 12 Approximate relationship of continental land masses within the supercontinent Pangaea during the Permian Period (redrawn from M. S. Petersen, K. I. Rigby, L. F. Hintze, Historical Geology of North America, Wm. C. Brown Co., 1980; reproduced with permission of McGraw-Hill Companies). '(g661) .IQ]L]HH mm; pauthv mamas 'OEB swaA 3w suumgw [I] samfig popad” ___—___—___—_——__—.——————-—-— suucg a[duus JO sutudmg pue susodap HGqJ'aj 1nq '511550} SI‘lOllZJ]C[S[I03 0N 9113M uomgq 17 uupqumjaud M OLE-909 ueuqumg spameas — — — - - v r r 7 r r 7 r r ‘Euapuq ‘32312 13313:“ 111 swumna 909 99; :slueld agiqu 31qu9119AUI ueppxopJO JEQddE smald pmn gay—gm: Haunug 1319M .IQpIII'l 113150 _ — — r 7 7 7 - _ _ _ _ - _ 512312 pHEIUI pun 3017—095 SJBQA (101111111 ngg ' W J0 33v ' ' sugmunom [IE]UOA9C[ 3102091125 ABPJUQSQJd . 7 7 7 7 , . . _ . . _ _ _ 099 029 UBEdeSslss‘yw Sassom qnp ‘saqsnj _ _ _ _ _ _ . , , , , , , , 11121351011 ‘sum; 3911 OZE_98Z 3519910} 190:) uegumlfisuuad suengqdmv — - - - n r 7 7 7 7 7 7 A - QBZ-Sfiz uemead —__——_.—__—_—u———-_ (pmfydn 514vame ungqauguddy) SVZ’SUZ (lg pue aamds ‘strgd spam} oyssepl 512 1pm; smyuoa) 1919M Japun ‘samdaJ .19qu — — — - - - - - ~ r r r w spunk) ‘U‘qgultg puny»on 12 9991303 ‘smesougq gaziwl $123K uogllyw gg fqggq smegtpewddv 315$sz agozosaw fid’f'99 $1033me (Palfildfl WWJWWW @308) 93311 17'99—9'I snonpmap 151218 Annual I ' ‘ ' 5123A umngm 09 .sgueld Buglamold splgq pun SIEIII]U'V 7 r r 7 u - - - - - — — — — - muzouag 9'1—1uasajd - maugutop SUELIJHH Amummnb W 3:111 .LNV'Jd smvmnow 3:111 "[VWINV 1,CIcu‘clad W3 911235 sun; 31801095) 2: H’IHVL uogfiag poaMpmH 12man 2111 ...
View Full Document

Page1 / 16

Hicks-Intro and Chap 1-pt 1 - x111...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 16. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online