Hicks-chp1-pt 4 - '(9461 391ml '5 puB 'UQPQQ'] 19p UBA '5...

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Unformatted text preview: '(9461 391ml '5 puB 'UQPQQ'] 19p UBA '5 ‘Jamw '1“ 'G ‘AJqfiuJeg -[ '[ {[101} uMBJpaJ) 5311313 [3311110 [1131523 sq; m (saqaug) uoumgdpaudgo Hounqpls‘gp panuuu afiBJQAV Ll; aHnDld u g1; uofiay panMpmH gm;an 31L; ,,_ I {imQIIIH V‘.lll\r\llil ‘IJIIIiIIIIt ‘Lllllljl "'IIJIIIII illllHll ‘-\ll]llllll Lillllilll latlllllll ‘1‘I Do Temperate oceanic Dc Temperate oorrt'mental E Borea] I Cf Subropical humid th Polar jundra parale arid Cs Subtropical dry summer emperate semiafid § § § 2 Q BWh Tropical/smiropical arid 2%" E g 2 r... g E B E I... <2 L___‘| 83k T _.__._n;' III I'l II ‘l‘l III/ Illlll Illll FIGURE 38 Ecoclimate zones ofthe earth (from G. T. Trewartha, An Introduction to Climate, McGraw—Hill, 1968, reproduced with permission of McGraw-I—Iill Companies). TROPICOEU. A. . H ' CANCER TROPJCQF _ .. CAFRICORN 44 wwfimd uogmodaq apaquoulw [BungeN aq1 Lutu} 51111391 no paseg (€551 Sump}; pun uosuaqdals SZ661 '{B 13 328123) 5911313 palgun mamas sq) u] uouauxou -aqd augpap 199m; [391123-03 91p qum 1391131305513 uasq suq L13ng (“unggsodap ppm” pauusu s] 1911M dn 9mm ammu pun 911351113 310 spple J0 muss-91d 3111 pue ‘uopualm 1113331 Lanu paAgaoal an 1121;: Jone; 12 5! uoumgdpeud '(117 ‘85) UOSBQS 8u3M018 L 1911qu e ".3qu seem uoumap 19113111 3.1mm uogmap :10 13353 JUQLIILLIOJd ' 13 [mm mega ‘JSQMmeOS 01 131331111011 tum} 314151331311; AHEJauafi ‘s/{Bp 013 01 0:1 moqe Luog safium uogSaJ poompmq {12.111139 31p u; uoseas Bum/x013 asg—wm; aql '(017 'SM) 2113101133 quoN u13159m mu; suegqanleddv aql HMop put; uogfi’eu sq; p .1911 UJaqzmu QLIJ 311019 saqnu; 03 Bugpaaoxa smuoum mous [EHHUE 1131M ‘UIEJ SE SHE} suogfiaJ 3111310 uoguod LIIQJSQM pun Luaqmos sq; u! Hoyleudpmd 91p, 50 150W '(fig '33) s1unouna 13mm 10 1911311] Anuaol my“ ‘satpu; 09 01 0? mm; ’(17661 1191933 11101;) Balms mum at“ J0 31101391033 69 mm | uotfieu POOMPJBH remiss vases mqunsmdmi 039 n uonmoz reulpmme eddais mdoAqnsneosdmi me E { 53m: 009 OS: sat a |_____ l fl unsM WOW w 5 mummpaw 093 _ Buuenesow - 9:1de 093 - vegan madam we 1 euuew 0173 [m1 ' addels mammal 099 reoadonqrs 093 g ‘ a .. laueunuoo 10H 03: ; f ow [ammo mmow ' SNOISENCI gv uogé’aa pooMpmH 1m;an 9qu 46 Ecology and Management of Central Hardwood Forests [3 Central Hardwood Region i FIGURE 40 Average annual distribution of snowfall (inches) in the eastern United States (redrawn from I. J. Geraghty, D. W. Miller, F. van der Leeden, and F. Troise 1973). '{usl aswu '5 PUB ‘uaPaST 1913 HM ‘3 ‘Jsmw 'M '(1 ‘hqfiws 'I '1 [11013 umwpal) $911213 [Janna [1134523 3L1] u; spopad Anp 9913—9293.:“0 uopnqynsyp lenumz QBBJSAV 117 gamma 'cna ‘saneyameu ueqm Harlem '5‘?“ V w sqpoq ‘Jenoo annals 9‘“ “a” “9‘” 599' “I 1101568 POOMPJBH Hugo sun pausep 5M4!) Lnnos me 9826er -56A ‘Ios 4o edfi ‘pueI m edqs ‘apmme u! saoua '13JJ!P 01 9UP ‘SQOUEISP yous u! moan flew p0! dad 391492394 ;0 Lnfiuq ueatu u! saBueua dxqu ‘LS EQHIBOSG PUB L finr‘ ueemlaq 962961; ourune pue 09 aunp pue L Kmnuep uaam,_ -aq mono m pawnsse axe 58269.1} fiuuds 'pmeqpuz sfiep w m -u|nu am Lieu; 5991 .10 um; emu; s1 paged 994-92691} ewe Lufiual an: WM MOMS 0]- u‘lewnn Jo llJeAOII 59ml 005 DE 631 0 110.1893 poompwH 1m;an 21L; 48 Ecology and Management of Central Hardwood Forests and other sources (Hicks 1992), the highest acid loading in precipitation in North America Occurs in the region of northern West Virginia/central Pennsyl- vania, where rain pH averages approximateiy 4.2. The recent national trend in acid loading of precipitation has generally been toward a reduction in precipi- tation acidity (Lynch et al. 1995). In summary, the climate of the central hardwood region is generally a favorable one for plant growth with moderate temperatures, a strong seasonal effect, adequate growing season precipitation, and a prominent effect of topography. It is these characteristics that have led to the dominance of the area by deciduous angiosperm species. Such species can exploit the warm, moist summers and use their broad horizontally—oriented leaves to capture a maxi mum amount of solar radiation for photosynthesis. Their ability to store photosynthates in root tissue and to remain dormant during the winter months, which are unfavorable to growth, enables deciduous angiosperms to have a competitive advantage over other life forms in the particular climate regime that exists in the central hardwood region. FOREST COVER As previously stated, macroclimate is the overriding characteristic that dictates the type of vegetation occupying an area. Bailey (1996) recounts: “Climate would appear to be, then, the initial criterion in defining ecosystem bound- aries.” Braun (1950), referring to the deciduous forest formation of North America, put it this way: “the formation is the long—time expression of climatic control. Through the vast area occupied by this formation, the seasonal distribution of rainfall and the length of the growing season are sufficiently alike to favor the dominance of deciduous forest.” Vankat (1979) indicates that “the dominant characteristic of climate in the deciduous forest region is the division of the year into distinct seasons, including a winter with continuous below- freezing temperatures in the north and at least occasional frosts in the south." Distribution of plant communities is further affected by local differences in climate (usually associated with topography or bodies of water), differences in soils (Eyre 1963), and land use history. The central hardwoods, as they exist today, are a product of all these factors. For those of us who live and work in the ”great forest” (Buxton and Crutchfieid 1985), it is easy to accept the superlatives often used to describe it. But in spite of Lucy Braun’s (1950) reference to the “vast area occupied by the formation,” on a global scale, temperate deciduous forests occupy only a small fraction of the land area. Bailey (1996), using primarily climate and vegetation, classified the “Ecoregions of the Continents.” Using his classification system, the central hardwoods, as well as the entire eastern deciduous forest formation, occur within two divisions (the Hot Continental and Subtropical) of the Humid Temperate Domain. These divisions are mostly found within plus or minus 15° pu2 511015111119 91211110111112 9111 .101 ([1961) 111121131 Aq 1991211010 51101111119591) 9111 ‘1121911 9.10111 111 1101391 11001121191211 12111199 9111 10 1101112193911 9111 91291111919 01 00112911155219 1101391099 19112 91112193911 10 5111915A5 1991119992 1111111311 119M 111 01 5111995 ‘1991111919 52 ‘1101391 19001111191211 12111199 9111 ‘511111 '(1661) 591215 19911111] 911110 112d 11191529 9111 u1 5991111015 539112131 10 11011111195919 1191121919 910111 2 9191110161 [99-29 591(121 117661) 591219 199111111 911110 51101391093 51219112131 1111111 1101391 p00Mp.1211 12111199 9111 111 1119591121 519p10 1105 9111 59911919191 9 91c121 '[917 '3111) 91q1550d 51 5111915A5 1101129131155219 5111112111 11112 5391112151 u99m19q 111 192119 910111 1191\9 112 ‘A1191219111 591911211 10 191191 11011995 9111 01 umop 31115n90:1 (9177917 5311) (1101110d 19912192131111 9111 21112191193) 1121:] 11191111105 9111 9191119111 01 (12111911111109) 159105 12911920151 1119151211 53911251 5913111119 ‘p911g9p 52 ‘u01391 1900111191211 12111199 9111 'MOPEQW-JSQJOfl p9x1w 2111192110 9111 p112 M01929W —15910;1 12911920151 91127.0 9111 91019291217159109l 5110.1911003—159105 J1291192019 11211192121101; 1211u93 9111 ‘(91112990) 159105112911120191 11191523 9111 59pn19u1 1101391 19001111191211 1211u99 9111 91911111 ‘591213 11911111] 9111 10 5990111011 (17661) 594911213 1111M 113M A1911 dn 5911912111 1101391 11900111191211 12111199 9111 10 1101129111191) 51111 '(g17 31:1) 11013911 159103 10111591130120 9111 1111111111 112 ‘A9112A pu2 9319111 19112 ‘9319111 91113 111911110N ‘(5u21119212ddv 1119111n0§ 9111 19112 u013911 159103 $109191H-1120 9111 10 110151111(1 11191111105 9111 1111111111) 5111121113111 101191111 9111 ‘11013911 159.105 9111(11d0591/x1 119111111 531112111 10 112 59111119111 1101391 1900111191211 1211099 9111 l>100c1 51111 10 59501111111 10:1 “1113110 12911015111 10 51591193 1.11 p02 A1u01130151£11d ‘11011 -150d11.109 911511011 u1 191110112 9110 111011 31111911119 5110112190552 112111119 10 1991111111 2 10 C111 9192111 51 110112111109 1591011 51101101996 9111” :591215 2911911111 111.10N 10 159101 5110111919911 9111 110 11191115219919 51190; 01 591191115 129111d21309301A11d 9111511911 -91d11109 1500.1 9111 10 9110 111 (0561) 11112111 '1101110d 11191111011 9111 u1 A112199d59 ‘59199ds 112111119 2 A11u9nb911 51 1199911 12111 19112 1101391 9111 11101131101111 19111101 919111 5>120 12111 199111130991 911 19112 ‘110112111101 51132514291920 9111 52 15910; 5110111919919 11191529 9111 01 199119191 (9161) 51119111913 50119115013112 snouppap A11u2u11110p916 912 ‘91u211 9111 Aq 19911111111 52 ‘1101391 190091191211 12111199 9111 10 5159109 '2912 191121 12101 9111 10 111991911 L17 15011112 .101 10110992 (51195919 19112 59dd915) 11121110q MG 9111 1111111111 31111121 5191121 19112 (2912 191121 1211013 9111 10 111991911 91 1110112 101 9111q11109 51101391099 9119.12an 11112 2119mm 99211115 55.11129 9111 10 1119919d 01 15011112 211111990 51101391099 15910111121 1291d011 911911109 12121013 2 111 5p00M191211 12111199 9111 10 1091919 9111 9921111 191111111 01 591213 19911un 11191529 9111 111 51 199159101 [11911151191919 5111211191 12111 19110111 9111 10 1101391099 1900111191211 5110111919919 A1110 9111 ‘191121292 M9N 19112 91101113 111915911 ‘u2d21 ‘2910)1 ‘2111113 9>111 5992111 111 51101391099 959111 111 311112919 191121 12111111191132 01 91119 111g 9110.13 01 1991112192 159q 912 5159101r 5110111919919 9191121 111129 9111 110 5001391 9111 912 959111 99211115 191121 1211013 9111 10 111991911 9 11:10q2 10 12101 p9u1q11109 2 .101 1un0992 (511011995 5n011121u110u1 3111191119111) 5u0151A1q 12911301111113 19112 12111911111103 101.1 9111 19112 ‘2912 99211115 -191121 1211013 9111 10 1u9919d g'zz 1110c12 591611990 11121110G 9112191111191 1911111111 9111 12111 51 5u01391099 10 59cL€1 959111 10 11191919 9111 01 9911919191 u1 1921 3u1159191111 11V 91911115101911 111911110u 9111 u1 111150111 19112 9111111121 01 191121211 11101; 9111 10 1101393 1100111131211 12111193 9111 --4.._:- -——~_.____ - .~_. .W— — ‘... M A . mm. ‘m— E «‘w- 6 1'5 50 500 Mi“ 1. MIXED MESOPHYI'IC FOREST REGION 5. OAK-PINE FOREST REGION 3. Cumbefland Momtains a. Aiianfic Siope Section D. Alegheny MouTIains b. Gui! Slope Section 0. Cumberland and Allegheny Plateaus a SOUTHEASTERN EVERGREEN 2. WESTERN MESOPHYTIC FOREST REGION FOREST REGION a. Biuegrass Seclion a. MISSIssippl Aluviai Plain b. Nashviile Basin ’ c. Area Of llhoian Giacia‘h'm 7- BEECl'l-MAPLE FOREST REGION d. H“! SectIo' n 3. MARLE—BASSWOOD FOREST REGION 6. Mississippian Plateau Secbo' n a. Secho' n f. Mississippi Emba'yment Sacha“ n b. Big Woods SechO' n 3. OAK-HICKORY FOREST REGION 9- HEMLOCK-WHTTE PINE-NORTHERN Southern Division HARDWOODS REGION : a. Interior HigHands Great Lakes-SI. Division i b. Forest-Prai'ie Transiiion Area 3. Great yake Seahon Northern Division In. Sgpanor Uplangi c. MississippiWiIey Seciion 0- MImesOia Secigon d.PrairiePen‘nsuIaSection d.LaIrenImSecu9n I I 4. OAK-CHESTNUT FOREST REGION “ERIE; 'ma'adm'an' “’9' “i” "3' “Wm” a. Soulhem Appalachians 1; Ad. mack . i b. Norlhern Blue Ridge 9' Nefimmseschfi!‘ n I c. Ridge and Valley Secuo' n ' d' Pmmm 39m“ :I CENTRAL HARDWOOD REGION 8. Giaciated Secfion FIGURE 42 Braun’s (1950) vegetational regions that comprise the central hardwood forest. 50 9111131 pue $911311 pue 3813111 3L11 sapnpug u01331 159101 51(1), 1113 '1L1211q 1nH1§3113 liq 18910:} 31]] Hull} 11111139113 UBDIJSUIV JO UUIJBLIILLIHB BIBIdLUOD .ISOUJIE 311] PQPQJQJCI A1sn01Aq0 15310.51 111(1139113-3130 9111 10 unpdpassp 3111, 'Sa1lm131q pue $1130 Aputeuuuopajd 9.19 sappmulutoa KELLIHD puB 'SpuE1L131H )1JEZO/B]1L139n0 3111 u1 pajama: S] uman Aq paqunsap SB 193.305 A.IO)131H—)1120 QLLL 'Ipaaq pma ‘JE1d0d -M0113A->1P.0 ‘A.IO)131L1->1130 10 51u9u()dm()3 1111M ‘quEpOSSB 31Lh1d0§aw paqu 9L” 310 SBAHElIIQSBldQl 9131113111 SUOHEDOSSB XBLUHZ] pLIE HEQJEId MO’I JOIJSJU] _ _ 1331193-09 9111 no 8111330 1931011 311Aqdosaw mama!“ 9111 11301qu pm? 13qu I pun ‘paJ ‘1nu1saq3) 2.31120 ‘('dds sngmsav) sa/(anpuq ‘91d12Lu 1128113 ‘spoomsseq ' ‘m1d0d-Mo11aA ‘Lpaaqj sapads JO .Iaqumu 13 Aq panaqs s; uogmposse xemgp 3111 113111 591331pu1 311g "snna1e1d UB1I13'B1‘8ddV pampqfiun 9111 [111111M pause] Annuuaa s] 11 SABS 3113 ‘159105 31quosaw pamw any 10d 11119311 919 suopoas .n 3 {17651 $11123 1110.11) suwmoq—samg p311uf1 311110 51101331033 gfiv 32111915 umfieu DOOMPJEH rewao residual nunH 00v m MC] 008 :: madam PEI-"1H 003 CI] mod 001 CI SNIVINOCI 1g 1103321; paompmH puma) 31M ' IX 52 Ecology and Management of Central Hardwood Forests "1:51- ._ ‘Hf I I I DIVISIONS q 210 Warm Continental -_ 41o Savanna ;' Z. | 220 Hot Continental ' M Mountajns with ‘ _ . 2308ubtropical aflfludinal zonafion - 250 Prairie Central Hardwood Region FIGURE. 44 Ecoregions of the United States—Divisions (from Bailey 1994). .i: ‘29 (17661 Aaneg [1101]) sanugnmdisamg paan 9q1}0 9110;391033 97 Emma [email protected] POOMPJEH WWO uoneuoz tau!me mam sugmurgow w --— ([eogdonqns) puewed 91.1!3Jcl 998 (emJedLueJ) pumch QUE-1d iSZ MOPESW—ISBJOd pram Humane Lem SGWIBJQAEI ll-t' MOPBBW-lfifliod 4261132013 341920 333w mopeew-lseuod mmeguog-Jasemd 493199018 ueiuoeteddv muss LZZW (requeunuoo) $9405 499|PB°JB wmsea 333 (ammo) 15940:: 4291139043 welsea LEE mopeew eugdw 433.105 SHOJBflUOQ-lsajod paxyw pueifiua MEN->139PU0JEPV a Law 188405 PQXEIN uenuemm 313 15910;: Gamma .rdstlssiw mm :72: 19910;: new UEBId [819200 Jeane aea lssJOfi pexsw welseeumos L83 SEONIAOHd uogfi'ag poompwH 1:141an 31“ I 54 Ecology and Management of Central Hardwood Forests ' o 125 250 500m“ M" Mountains wflh Affimd'nal Zonafions Central Hardwood Region FIGURE 46 Ecoregions of the United States—Sections {from Bailey 1994). .__. ....fl.......nm.m,....__..._..mmv- - - '(17661) Mung mums 59113111113 11103 01 1003 u1 p910101 51105 01 31111191911n—12131151 efieugwp 93133111311113 100d 01 911p 10 191nm 931211115 01 911p 1911119 ‘39115 191.1 1111110051293 111 p9u1101 9110373111151; 5110111111103 3113111113 1011 01 uIJBM A11 p9g1p0111 s1 11011121u101 1105 —31u1.raz1_L 3911211111: 1311111111 10 ‘p11111111 01 31111111911—91111] 111111013 111121d noddns 01 11011211d1391d 9112111191112 1111M 39113111113 1810111 01 3111111131195—31931/1' :319g1p0111 1111s 10 911011d11os9q 1911201113 p100 01 11111211 p11e1u193 pue p11un1111us 111 11150111 119111101 2139qu 111 118111 ‘5u0211011 93211113 11311011112810 91111211; 5131210 [(113911 9.11311 112111 s1103~5105111aw yup 9112 911105 ‘1105105 111112111 9111 31111111) 111q '1510111 2111an11 51101112111111n9912 [(121310 5110211011 93131111511113 11112 5110211011 931311115 111110111 01 A213 9111211 111112 (z'g Hd 12 11011131111125 951211) 3951311 111 113111 01 um1p9u1 911a 12111 51103 —31051[1V '90111 911110111211 11p 912 911105 ‘1139A 9111 10 uoseas 1111qu 9111 311111111 11111 ‘1510111 A111211sr1 9112 51103 939111 'p91121n1u113011 1011 9111211 1nq 1391011191 10 139191113 1199q 9.11211 1105 9111 111 s121191eu1 521110211011 p911211u919111p Appeam 9111211 119111 51105—510511d39u1 '911111 911110 112d A111 9112 911105 ‘129A 9111 10 11051393 111112111 91.11 3111111p 111q ‘1310u1 2111an11 Ssu011e111u1113312 A213 10 3110211011 931311112:an 9111311 11012 995211 111 M01 9112 112111 s11ogm5105111f1 :9191110 (5361 A9153111)1 u1011) 519131110111 p119 3191110 110810 u011d11359p1911£1q 311011395 13111: 993111A01d 10 110112301 101 (917 pm; 917 '5813) sdmu 993,, (9311111011 1591051 31Pf1 ‘DIUUQIfl 810511111 VI EZW PSXIW BLITPBHO) IEZW DEPQ ‘DEHHQILL SIOSIHOW ‘SIOSEllfl DIEZ (QDUIAOJd 15310fl 3IPQ ‘DELUIBILL SIOSWH VIQZ PQXEW UJQISBQQJHOS) [EZ (soungld JIPD 'DFUUMIL 51051110 VZZZW 13310fl 399IP901‘H HMO) ZZZW 3!?(1 ‘PE3EJH ‘JISQW 9105115193111 (51051110 (HZZW 3InbV'UIPf1 ‘3!59W SIUSHIH ‘SIOSEldSOUI DIZZW 31pm 0133111 310911111 ‘s1us11d93111 gnaw (93111Ao1d 159105 1129111120111 ambv ‘3]p1‘1 5139111 510511111 ‘s10311d931r1 wzzw 1112111312112ddv 113111193) [zzw DIPH ‘3InbV ‘31591/‘1 SIOSHIV DZZZ 311311 01591111 3109111393111 '3105111V flZZZ 31m 5153111 SIOSHIV ‘3105‘11111 3111 3mm '3!99W SIUSHW ‘31031110 GZZZ DInbV ‘DIPD 59319111. 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This note was uploaded on 09/01/2008 for the course HON 341 taught by Professor Jones during the Fall '08 term at University of Louisville.

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