Hicks-Chap1-pt2 - 16 Quartzme Lower parnbiian Ecology and...

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Unformatted text preview: 16 Quartzme Lower parnbiian Ecology and Management of Central Hardwood Forests our present-day mountains, which after 150 million years of erosion have become the landscape that exists today (Fig. 13). There are many interesting and unique features of the Appalachian system that, when viewed in the context of the geologic history of the region, begin to seem more logical. For example, the occurrence of hot springs from New York through the Carolinas and out to Arkansas gives testimony to the now extinct volcanos that helped build the early precursors of the Appalachians. There are a few remnant monadnocks that, due to their hardness, have resisted erosion. Features, such as Stone Mountain in Georgia and Mount Katahdin in Maine (Fig. 14), are granite mountains of extruded Precambrian material that was associated with the region’s volcanic past. Mount Mitchell, the highest point in the eastern United States, is a monadnock of quartzite, a metamorphic rock formed from sandstone buried deep underground and subjected to intense heat and pressure. Metamorphic rocks like quartzite, feidspar, and marble are more common in the Blue Ridge regions, as well as in the Ouachita Mountains, providing evidence of their metamorphic origins. Near Mena, Arkansas, in the Ouachitas, is the site of one of a handful of areas where diamond can be found in the United States. Diamonds are formed when carbon (coal) is subjected to intense heat and pressure, giving further evidence of the forces that created these mountains. FIGURE 13 Structural cross section of the Appalachian region showing the thrust faults of the southern part of the orogenic belt. The Ridge and Valley Province is composed of overlapping slices of Cambrian and younger Paleozoic formations. Late Precambrian and Cambrian rocks are exposed in the Smoky Mountains to the east (redrawn from M. S. Petersen, K. ]. Rigby, L. P. Hintze, Historical Geology of North America, Wm. C. Brown Co., 1930; reproduced with permission of McGraw-Hill Companies). 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FIGURE 16 Eastern redeeclar often invades old fields on soils with high base cation content like these in the Bluegrass Region of Kentucky. 9111 pampald 1g 113111 331123ng! 991111139; snougmunom asaq] 5501312 S1112) 13AM MGN 91p mq] 13231 9111‘ ‘uolfiupunH mau ogqo 9111 mug swon Alawmmn qr)ng '(BILIEEJIA 139/“ ‘umsalmqg 50 JaAngn) .ICIAQI BqMBUEH aql om! saude 1} 'JUO.I:[ J Auaqgany pue ARUBA pm: £ng 31;] 3301312 ABM SJ; 5111:) pun BUHOJBQ quoN ' u; speaq 113111 13AM MQN sq] s! 311113913111; 390m mp 50 auo sdeqlad '(91 'fiyg) uoyfieu poompmq IEJJUQD sq) mqunqu adeaspuel 9Lng uo 91mm 91cmme 1:191 . '{9951 ‘89915 mosauuyw JD byswgug '91); '[e 19 1q81JM '3 'H ' ‘11 '[0A ‘szumg pawn 3sz f0 wauruovqaug {amuawnfijvamj Lt! 5531913 pauun 01915133 3L1] JO hmng [enoumaSaA auaaoluH” ‘sgmaq ‘3 'W Luog) 591mg paqmn 111315123 sql u; 11091431213 JIo mama fiugmoqs draw 41 HHDDId 53F.” 005‘ 093 $22] 0 ' E I (31“ mmfi JO murmmm “<2 (0561 ‘UflB-IH) uogflag pDDMpJBH $131133 .10 31Han D 5: uogfi‘ag poampmH 31941an and 20 Ecology and Management of Central Hardwood Forests 0 |25 250 500 rrile: :1 CENTRAL HARDWOOD REGION FIGURE 18 Principal rivers and drainage basins in the eastern United States (from I. I. Geraghty, D. W. Miller, F. van der Leeden, and F. Troise 1973). uplifting of the mountains. Indeed, its meandering course, more reminiscent of a slow-flowing river in level terrain, is an indication that the mountains rose around the river leaving the so-called entrenched meanders as evidence of its past histow. Some geologists speculate that the New River once had its headwaters in what are now the Atlas Mountains of northern Africa, dating back to the time when Pangaea was a single supercontinent (Hubler 1995). 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In the region of gentle folds to the northwest of the Ridge and Valley Province, anticlines have persisted as mountains where hard Pennsylvanian sandstones formed a resistant cap. The Chestnut Ridge Anticline that forms Chestnut Ridge in northcentral West Virginia and the Laurel Highlands of southwestern Pennsylvania is an example of this (Fig. 20). Another geologic feature that has had an impact on the central hardwood region is the occurrence of fossil fuel deposits. Coal, gas, and oil are all abundant under much of the Appalachian Plateau. These deposits occurred during the lush vegetative growth of the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian periods (Carbon- iferous). Coal seams outcrop along hillsides in the dissected plateau where streams have eroded away the intervening valleys. Contour surface mining has been a common practice used to extract coal in the Appalachian Plateau. More . recently, with the advent of larger equipment, surface mining by mountain—top i l ‘ removal/valley fill is being employed in steep terrain (Fig. 21). SOILS AND SITE i i ' Soil is a complex of mineral and organic fragments that supplies minerals, I water, and support for plant growth (Wilde 1946). The characteristics of a given soil are a result of the interaction of the parent material (geologic substrate), EZ s9d01s 91315 110 99112113 ue1u0A9a 111011 p9A119p 31105 91.11 ‘91d11113x9 10:1 1111330 A9111 91911111 912111113 9111 00 11211111911103 81111311911913 211191317133 80113101149121“ 131112 A11111191 1911101 01 9111) 1101391 13001111311211 112111193 9111 111 91111311130111 1111391 91.11 1(1112191198 91E 3113119113111 111911211 (911015141213 13112 9110191113 A111Eu111d) 9111113 11101; 1391111913 51105 '(fpz €111] 3115011913 91101591111110 101113113111 p008 12 A1113n3u s1 11217931191 11191309 10 9311911n330 9111 '1] 9.111%151 1.11 111110115 31 113111111110 911111112119 ue ‘11110101 p9dde3 —9u01spu1’.s Aq 139pu11011ns 09110 9112 3139112 939111 '93111Ao1d A911EA 13111: 931318 1191111131 131111 19913101 911110 3119111311 M01111u 910111 911110 Anew 912 119M 813 ‘99339111191‘ 111112 1013111119} 10 911011395 58918911151 9111 pun M9111“ 9999111191 10111: 1.1110131112119113 9111 ‘11151311 9111A11312N 9111 10 91111 81 51111, '(ZZ '35) 5911111111913 112111111191182 1111111 p91d11390 A1111eu11u0p91d 9113 51103 939111 ‘S9d01s 911129812013111 910111 110 111330 A1112n311 A9111 112111 13121 9111 pun ‘11051391 51111 1051 39% 1103 191110 1111111 sn1011dsoz1d 13111! 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FIGURE 23 Knobs in the “Hiwassee” range near Madisonville, Tennessee illustrate the resistance of these Pennsylvanian-era sandstones. 9110131115: 131112 91101111311123 111011 111011 5113119112111 12111111103 111 13911110} 51105 9.11111 11111011111103 51101391 311.1d111301sA11d 939111 111 59110191001 pun S9d0159131s 10 $139.11: 151311 219119111011 'umnp1991 13911113 ‘93111d 111 81101; 111101 3911211 112119112111 111911311 9181119 31119111395; 9d01s 111121193 pun 11981311 110 ’s9x1111 119110 1105 110 931191111111 119111 ‘u01891 11001111311211 113111193 9111 10 51101110d 13913101 p111; 311139111111 9111 1110118n01111 959113131111 81111111211 10 51911131 u1 1391311911191111 111330 39u01s1311115 131112 39112113 9911113911 ‘SlSQJOJ 9111130130111 211911 51111101111113 10 91qnd123 9.112 11111 91n1111311812 101 191112 11131105 92 1011 9112 91103 9119111 111103 p9A11913—9u015p111zs 10 A111111311p01d 931191111111 1113110119 [11M 9112111113 p111? ‘139ds13 ‘u011130d 9d01s ‘51103 139111913-9112113 1.111111 51; 7111131312 19112918 3911111911103 131111 111911103 [31138 1911311110 1 S1105 9311130111 1nq 119112115 1111M [19131391119101 111330 A9111 ‘u01891 1300111131211 112111193 - 9111 11101181101111 sn12911a1d pun 3931111 10 9911011111123 11011le3 9113 Sp0119d 3110111211 10 39110191311139 3100.1 11111110119“ 131112 111211113111/{su119d 3113132 910111 191110 111011 139111101 950111 1112111 91111311110111 910111 511111 131113 ‘511191111111 91111219111291“ 111 19113111 9113 12111111; 19811110A 91.1105 131.113 u111dd1§51ss1y11 911110 59112115 ‘051V 119139113 159101 11l131l0dll11 10 11111018 p008 110ddr1§ u9110 111291131c1 Au9113911v 9111 10 99111333130111 _ 1910111 910111 pu13 19131201c1 9111 110 51103 139A119p-9112113 ‘152111103 Ag '(gz '3151) 9139101 " )1130 Aqqmas 1101111115 ‘139d019A913 A1100d 131112 1101113113 11111211911 ‘31105: 939111 'u01891 , 1300111311211 1113111193 9111 111 15910011 9111 811011111 9113 93111Ao1d 119111211 13119 93pm 9111310 131311111991 11:11u93 111 1113 131201 12 3110113 3110131110 911015911111 921110103 119110108121 s112p93p91 u191s13g tz EIHflDIfl 1 gz 11013211 poo/11121211111911an 91M 26 . A1- 4'1‘," FIGURE 25 This Ridge and Valley oak stand is typical of many in the central hardwood region where poor growing sites favor oaks over other species. Where sufficient moisture exists, these soils form the basis for an important timber growing area within the central hardwood region (Fig. 26). As discussed previously, the effect of climate is as important to soil productivity as geology (Eyre 1963). For most of the central hardwood region, precipitation exceeds evapotranspiration for a significant portion of the year. Its 1 effect on soil development is seen in the moderate to high degree of weathering i that has taken place in most forest soils in the region. Many temperate miliennia i of wet-dry and freeze-thaw cycles in the presence of carbonic and organic acids i have resulted in considerable weathering of soil materials. Structural develop- : ment and leaching of cations have occurred in most soils ofthe region, and soils on more stable landscape positions have well—developed argillic horizons that are enriched in illuvial clay particles translocated from overlying eluvial horizons. Organic horizons, though often ignored, are important in forest soils E because they commonly contain much of the nutrient reserves available to i , forests in a management time frame. They are also critical to water, gas, and ‘ ' microbial dynamics and are most susceptible to impact from human activities. in a few high-elevation areas on sandy parent rock, podzolization processes are important. Precipitation approaches or exceeds evapotranspiration for most of the year on these sites where spruce-fir forests often dominate. The very acid 111,7 __ _ ,, , , I 1 1101391 pom-11311211 112111193 911110 111121191 1111111 911110 91011291 1u131 -10du11 1112 31 1101112198911 pue l31103 ‘91121u1190191111 ‘Aqdwfiodol 11991111911 11121d191111 31111 313911513 191110 1113111 31111111111 01 1091an 5391 9113 131112 11913111 9113 19118111 -.§ 12 9111211 391103 939111 "311191111111 1119111 91111211121112 9.10111 3n111 pup. 1103 9111 111 139113 ‘ 7.10d109111 19112111 31112310 10 31011011113 19113111 9111311 11111111311 391103 Bung-13129111100 1510111 910111 111112 19100:) A19A1112191 9111 1101391 poompmq 112111199 9111 10 11121191 fiu1d013 9111 111 31101113191 91111310111 13112 9.111112191111191 31391113. 13901312 911013 .1 1101891 11001211911211 11311093 9111 u1 [11911131191119 111330 3.191110 1103 939111 ‘1; 9111121 p013 Lz 91113111 111 11993 9c1 11133 31; 001110 1101112p1x0 019111) 3110311113 1151131391 9.10m 11112 (310311113 13111; 310311111) 500211011 31111812 3110113 1111111 31103 9111211 01 1191111 9.1010 9111 39pn1111a1 131113 3110111211919 191101 ‘9101919111 11311139 81119q 38111111 191110 ‘31111911112911 390p 03 ‘59312919111 9.11111219d11191 512 ‘A1112191199 (51113193 399.139p g > 91011219111119], 1103 11311111113 ? 11129111} 110111211913 '11 00017—0009 9A0q1a 31103 13181.11 10 9139.12 M91 12 1111111 ‘(31113193 3991391) ((—91 91010191111191 1103 1011mm 11129111) 3111119111 111011 39311131 91111391 9.111112191111191 1 1105 911 1 '1101391 13001111311311 112111193 911110 31103 139101 51391112 03112 911111219d11191 ' '31050p0d3 13911123 9.11% 51103 939111 '3110211011 91p0d3 8111111101 ‘111111111111112 131119 11011 911311d1391d91 131113 ‘91123013111211 ‘91219119 311111191) 31111 111011 39121191291 1 '511120 111112 ‘sa1d2111 ‘1B1d0d~1101191{ 3111111113111 39139ds 10 9101x1111 . 12 1111311103 ((911; 'snadse 3111312113129 pun 4111011 131112 39d01s 9111331103 312 113113 39113 98219A12-9A01112 110 puno; A112311M1 ELIE 31311215 939111 93011015 ma9m1d 02103121311111; 9111 01 13111313 11001111111311 31111111039111 139111111 V gz 3111110111 52: 1101391] 1900411911111 1111111213 31111 “a c. - ,q— q. ‘Hiffif' ' ...--. 28 Ecology and Management of Central Hardwood Forests so“. om flmwwmww AREDiSOLS (o) ‘ mam awesome-0 " smear:QO MOUJSOLStM) ii SPODOSOl-Sts) umsmsm ease wensotsm A, MOUNTAIN sensor) Amswmaitsa uncaring) mm of Cam 0 Hmvow Regen __ __ Wham permsfloa! 'Deaaimions atom and prinde albumen FIGURE 27 North American soiis: principal orders and suborders (from Espenshade 1995). The impact of vegetation on soils is generally related to the type of litter produced and deposited at the surface. The chemical and physical preperties of litter affect the decomposition rates (Melillo et a1. 1982) and this, in turn, affects the amount of organic matter and leaf litter fractions of the soil. It also affects the rate of mineral cycling {Hicks and Frank 1984). For example, Mudrick et al. (1994) found that when comparing the rates of decomposition (mass loss) of leaves of yellow-poplar, red maple, and chestnut oak (Quercus prions L), the yellow-poplar and maple decomposed almost completely during a single season in northcentral West Virginia, whereas the oak leaves were only about 40 percent '191009 11911111 S‘BM 912111119 9111 11911111 1101891 1- 1900111111211 12111199 21120111959111 9111 11101181101111 11911111111511: 11913111 910111 SEM 12111 139101 1291011 2 10 s1112uu191 " 912 3159101 u0112119197113111 939111 1211110123 11110N ‘1112111110W 191.1121pu211) 12911 1111213 93111113 p91] 92 111111913 1101891 9111 1110 ~118n01111 1103 1211111112 19112 “12111111109 ‘9d01s1001 ‘9d01s9p1s 10 5191102 p99np01d 8211 199119 91111 2015019 10 139119 81111111111109 9111 91291pu1 9111293111121 9111 10 5911111291 1 13911111101 9111 '1119111d019119p 119111 10 A1013111 81101 9111 01 1111011111391 391113 1101391 ii 9111 1111111111 91105 190m 10 91110111 p9do19A9p-119M 91.11 110111019 pue 31111911129111 1! 10 111015111 31101 2 1991191 111959111 51105 9111 $11111 -(s1291( 1101111111 ng 10 5599119 1; 111) 1310 A191 1111291301098 91 91900111191211 12111193 9111 10 1101391 9111119 9111 '(gg “3151) 1211912111 p9sodu1039pun A19111219110 519Ae1 11991) 111 991311113 911112 912111111n992 01 8131191 ‘QAqu. 9111 01 91119 ‘19111119111103 '191111 9113192 910111 2 9911130111 119110 pu2 3911291 13001111131211 112111 19911111311 910111 A11219u9fi 1 7 I 912 5911291 19111103 111911103 12911119119 19112 991119d01d 1139115111111 111 3911291 p00Mp1211 1 111011 1119191111) 911mb 51 12111 191111 9311110111 spu21s 19111109 asaqi '51121119212ddv 12111199 9111 111 51911215 11901111911 pu2 ‘511011993 55213911111 pu2 1115211 91111111131211 91.11 111 59112111 121999 “(6: £151) 393p11 31113214111103 110 spums 9u1d ‘(gz €15) spums 111199111113 10 99111115 1121119212ddv 11011211919-118111 912 $1111 10 3911511112113 919111109 1 £11 139199101 A11u2u11110p91d 912 12111 32912 111191 2 9113 9.19111 ‘1101391 p00Mp1211 ' 112111199 9111 u11111M 31300111191211 911A11dos91u 191110 01 p912d11109 52 91911213 >120 I 19131111 11011111109 91 12111 11911121191111 19>131111 9111 su121dx9 ‘112d 111 ‘51111 'pasodmoaap 63 111018911 1100111191111; 117111199 911 L1, ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/01/2008 for the course HON 341 taught by Professor Jones during the Fall '08 term at University of Louisville.

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Hicks-Chap1-pt2 - 16 Quartzme Lower parnbiian Ecology and...

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