comm200,spr06 notes for Ch2

comm200,spr06 notes for Ch2 - Chapter 2 / 3 Crossword...

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Chapter 2 / 3 Crossword Answers * a type of theoretic explanation? Practical * operational definitions have to be? Reliable * method of theory development? Extension * in step 2 of scient method, a researcher forms one? Hypothesis * basic element of a theory? Construct * in step 5 of scient method, what kind of variable is manipulated? Causal * in step 6 of scient method, what’s observed? Results * basic element of a theory? Proposition * method of theory development? Intention * type of validity? Internal * a characteristic of all theories? Abstract * a characteristic of all theories? General * one of the 4 functions of a theory? Control * one of the 4 functions of a theory? Prediction * method of controlling extraneous variables in a mechanistic study? Random sample * type of validity? External * criterion for evaluating a theory? Validity * one of the 4 functions of a theory? Description * in step 4 of scient method, what kind of variable must be controlled? Extraneous * statement that expresses a quantitative relationship b/w variables? Proposition * one of the 4 functions of a theory? Explanation * operational definitions have to be? Valid Chapter 2 Outline-- Points of View About Theory Theories-- sample definition: “A Theory is a set of interrelated constructs (concepts/variables), definitions, and propositions that present a systematic view of phenomena by specifying relations among variables, with the purpose of explaining and predicting the phenomena.” I. Theories are the foundation of every academic discipline A. Theories identify important variables (Description) B. Theories account for the relationships and effects that occur (Explanation) C. Some theories help us anticipate future effects and outcomes (Prediction) D. Theories give us guidance in how we can attain our personal goals & how we might solve practical problems (Control) II. Characteristics of All Theories A. Abstract 1. Partial-- never covers entirety of phenomenon; selects what it describes/explains 2. General-- not concrete; variable (does NOT refer to specific person or comm event); variables are general concepts that can describe/stand for wide variety of specific instances B. Constructions 1. Human creations 2. Theories are NOT facts. They attempt to explain facts Basic Elements of Theory I. Components of a Specific Theory A. Constructs / Variables
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1. Constructs: concepts of the theory; identifies the content of the theory 2. Variables: constructs that can vary in mathematical quantity 3. Major classifications/types of variables a. independent: causal variables b. dependent: effect variables B. Propositions 1. Proposition a. statements that express relationships b/w variables of a theory b. in scientific/social scient theories, expresses quantitative relationships b/w variables
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comm200,spr06 notes for Ch2 - Chapter 2 / 3 Crossword...

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