psyc100 reading notes ch10 fall 06

psyc100 reading notes ch10 fall 06 - (Chapter 10) REASONING...

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(Chapter 10) REASONING AND INTELLIGENCE HOW PEOPLE REASON part I-- ANALOGIES AND INDUCTION Analogies As Foundations For Reasoning A. in scientific reasoning B. in judicial and political reasoning and persuasion C. used to test for reasoning ability 1. Raven’s Progressive Matrices test-- tests for fluid intelligence Inductive Reasoning And Some Biases In It A. inductive reasoning , or induction , or hypothesis construction : to infer a new principle or proposition from observations/facts/clues; “reasoned guesswork” (eg, detectives) B. The Availability Bias 1. availability bias : when we reason, we tend to rely too strongly on info that is readily available to us rather than on info that’s less available C. The Confirmation Bias 1. confirmation bias : natural tendency to try to confirm rather than disconfirm their current hypotheses 2. The most creditable hypotheses are those that survive the strongest attempts to disprove them, but confirmation bias still exists 3. Why? A. yes is more pleasant to hear than no in social exchanges so we may bias our statements in ways designed to elicit agreement B. through evolution or learning or both, we might have developed an adaptive tendency to stick w/ hypotheses that seem to be working rather than try to test their limits by behaving against them (eg, wearing a helmet when biking) D. The Predictable-World Bias 1. We are so strongly predisposed to find order in our world that we are inclined to see or
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psyc100 reading notes ch10 fall 06 - (Chapter 10) REASONING...

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