psyc100 reading notes ch12 fall 06

psyc100 reading notes ch12 fall 06 - (Chapter 12) SOCIAL...

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(Chapter 12) SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Pg 423-436 INFANCY-- USING CAREGIVERS AS A BASE FOR GROWTH In infancy, according to Erik Erikson, the primary problem is developing a sense of trust. John Bowlby contended that the emotional bond b/w human infant and adult caregiver is promoted by a set of instinctive tendencies in both partners. Bowlby began to use the term attachment to refer to such emotional bonds. Attachment To Caregivers A. Harry Harlow experimented w/ rhesus monkeys-- Harlow raised infant monkeys w/ 2 substitute mothers, one wire and one cloth. The infants treated the cloth one as the mother, ran to it when threatened, were braver when the “mother” was present, etc. B. Harlow’s expmt showed that infants need to be provided w/ nutrition and other physical needs, but they also need close contact with comforting caregivers C. Bowlby contended that attachment is a universal human phenomenon w/ a biological foundation that derives from natural selection D. Mary Ainsworth developed the strange-situation test in which the infant and mother are brought into an unfamiliar room w/ toys. An unfamiliar adult and the mother move in and out of the room in a sequence 1. Infants are securely attached if they explore confidently when mother is present,
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psyc100 reading notes ch12 fall 06 - (Chapter 12) SOCIAL...

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