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CH11 BCH3025 - Berg Tymoczko Stryer Biochemistry Sixth...

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Biochemistry Sixth Edition Chapter 11: Carbohydrates Copyright  ©  2007 by W. H. Freeman and Company   Berg • Tymoczko • Stryer
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Pasta is a Source of Carbohydrates
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Preview of Chapter 11 Monosaccharides are aldehydes or ketones with multiple hydroxyl groups Complex carbohydrates are formed by the linkage of monosaccharides Carbohydrates can be attached to proteins to form glycoproteins Lectins are specific carbohydrate-binding proteins
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Carbohydrates 1. Energy stores, fuels, and metabolic intermediates 2. Form part of the structural framework of RNA and DNA 3. Elements in the cell walls of bacteria and plants 4. Linked to many proteins and lipids 5. Mediate cellular interactions 6. Tremendous structural diversity
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Glycomics Sheer number of possible oligosaccharides that can be attached to proteins augments the already immense diversity of proteins. Glycomics is the subfield of proteomics of unraveling oligosaccharide structures and elucidating the effects of their attachment to proteins
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Aldehydes Or Ketones Monosaccharides = aldehydes or ketones with 2 or more hydroxyl groups
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Fisher Projections
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Aldoses
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D-Ketoses
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Ring Forms are Energetically More Stable Than Open Chains
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Aldehyde Reacts With Alcohol To Form Hemiacetal
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Ketone Reacts With Alcohol To Form Hemiketal
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Pyranose Formation
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Furanose Formation
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Pentoses Form Furanose Rings
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Ring Structures Of D-Fructose
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Chair and Boat Forms of Beta- D-glucopyranose
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Envelope Conformations of Beta-D-ribose
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Monosaccharide Alcohol Adducts
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