Unformatted text preview: Monday class:
The Genus Homo (H. erectus) What is human?
Large brain? Bipedal locomotion? Tool making and use? Control of fire? Language? Art, religion, etc.? Fossil evidence of the human lineage: the Genus Homo Homo habilis
Meaning: 'Handy man'. Lived: 2.4 - 1.6 million years ago. Range: Eastern and southern Africa. Diet: Omnivorous diet. Size: 4 ft./3-inches & 88 lbs ave. Brain Size: 47% the size of a modern H. sapiens sapiens brain Biology and Environment of H. habilis
Still retained some tree-climbing ability Sexual dimorphism Scavenger Sleeping in trees? Mental ability including foresight Did H. habilis have culture? Stone tools Dramatic increase in meat consumption? Language? Social organization From Homo habilis to H. erectus The first human diaspora
Humans = all species that are lumped under the Genus Homo (Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo ergaster, etc. "diaspora" refers to the dispersion of a homogeneous group (like people) from their original homeland. Geographic spread of Homo habilis and Homo erectus Homo erectus
1.9 - 0.3 million yrs. ago Between 1.9 - 1.0 mya left Africa China, Indonesia, Hungary, East and West Africa, Germany Multiple species parallel H. erectus Pleistocene Southeast Asia & the "Missing Link" in human evolution Alfred Russell Wallace, natural scientist Ernst Haeckel
Eugene Dubois, Dutch physician History of Homo erectus in Asia
Java and Eugene Dubois China and Zhoukoudian Middle Pleistocene remains in Asia
Found in both Island SE Asia and China Hominid remains relatively abundant in China JAVA as earliest example Zhoukoudian (CHINA) as best example H. erectus at Zhoukoudian
Limestone hills near Beijing Hills filled with caves and fissures--fossils Fossil sites are called "localities" Locality 1: big cave with deep deposits Homo erectus at Zhoukoudian
Subsistence Primary sources of food: deer, elephant, camel, horse Fruits and nuts: hackberries Also find leopard, cave bear, saber tooth tiger Hominid bones are very fragmented-- what does this mean? Homo erectus at Zhoukoudian
H. erectus finds dated from 600 200 thousand years BP Over 40 individuals Cranial cap. 1075 cc Low skull vault Thick skull walls Bony crests Males 5'2", females 4'8" Zhoukoudian (or Dragon Bone Hill) Davidson found Black (1885-1934) first Homo erectus skull cap with Pei Wenzhong in 1929 1929 1937: fragmentary remains of 14+ Homo erectus individuals found at Locality 1 largest H. erectus sample from a single locality in the world Homo erectus fossils from Locality 1 0.5 to 0.23 mya H. erectus at Zhoukoudian
1937 Japan invades China 1941 Chinese and Americans remove fossils Excavations resumed in 1959 Dubois discoveries in 1890s Work by Dubois at Trinil (Java) Homo erectus: examples
"Java Man" Indonesia Controversial dating, 1.7 million years BP Thick cranial bones Cranial capacity around 1000 cc. Homo erectus
African continent Homo erectus in Africa
Bodo skull, Ethiopia 600,000 years BP Cranial capacity 1100 cc and a broad massive face Evidence of defleshing? Homo erectus in Africa: example
East Africa, Turkana boy: WKT-15000 Cranial capacity: 700-800 cc 11-12 year old boy About 5' 3" Homo erectus
Biology and behavior Homo erectus: Evolutionary Changes in Biology
Changes in Biology Short face, less ape-like Large nose Brow ridges Cranial capacity: 800-1300 cc H. habilis, OH5, "Twiggy" H. erectus, Broken Hill 1 Homo erectus: Evolutionary Changes in Behavior
Hunting Spanish sites of Torralba and Ambrona with butchered animals and tools African sites with butchered baboons Signifies cooperation among hunters Homo erectus: Evolutionary Changes in Behavior
Acheulian Bifaces (hand-axe) Associated with Homo erectus Found throughout Africa and the Middle East Standardized Homo erectus: Evolutionary Changes in Behavior
Control of fire Fire necessary to inhabit cold climates Fire is a tool Protection at night Longer "work day" Dreaming? Homo erectus: Evolutionary Changes in Behavior
Residential Areas Site of Terra Amata, France 400,000 years BP House structures End of Monday class
Next class: H. erectus continued Monday Week # 5
Pre-modern humans & Neanderthals Three Basic Transitions in Genus Homo
The early form of H. erectus appears about 1.9 million years ago of archaic H. sapiens Transition from archaic to anatomically modern H. sapiens Development Comparison of H. erectus, archaic H. sapiens, and modern H. sapiens
Brain size Forehead Occipital Jaws and teeth Nasal bones Muscle markings on skull Brow ridges Chin Skuhl V, Israel,
A.M. Human H. erectus, Zhoukoudian La Ferrassie 1, "Neanderthal" Comparisons of post-cranial features Culture of Archaic H. sapiens
Tool technology becomes more complex Levallois Settlement like H. erectus Diet somewhat different than H. erectus Increase in sophistication? Archaic Humans in: Africa Origins of modern Homo sapiens
Example: Broken Hill skull Large brains (1100-1400) 400-300,000 years ago 300,000-125,000 BP Archaic Humans in: Africa Broken Hill skull Large brains (11001400) 400-300,000 years ago Asia Jinniushan man Large brains (1400) 250-125,000 years ago Origins of modern Homo sapiens 280,000-250,000 BP Archaic Humans in: Origins of modern Homo sapiens Africa Broken Hill skull Large brains (1100-1400) 400-300,000 years ago Asia Jinniushan man Large brains (1400) 250-125,000 years ago Europe Large brains (1300) Ancient and modern traits 300-125,000 years ago Neanderthals after 125,000 ya 280,000-250,000 BP Archaic Humans in: Africa Origins of modern Homo sapiens
Modern H. sapiens arrive Cro-Magnons arrive in SE and central Europe about 40,000 years ago Slightly more sophisticated technology What happened to Neanderthals with the arrival of moderns?
Broken Hill skull Large brains (1100-1400) 400-300,000 years ago Asia
Jinniushan man, Zhoukoudian Large brains (1400) 200-125,000 years ago Europe
Large brains (1300) Ancient and modern traits 300-125,000 years ago Neanderthals after 125,000 ya Competing models Models of Modern Human Origins
Eve, Out of Africa, or Replacement model Modern humans evolved once in Africa and then migrated (second migration, first was H. erectus) throughout Africa and Eurasia replacing populations there.
Population relatedness tracked through mtDNA mtDNA mutation rate known and comes from mom Greater difference in mtDNA betwixt populations, longer populations have been separate Model suggest physical replacement of archaic H. sapiens (Euros not Neanderthals) Out of Africa/Replacement Model Models of Modern Human Origins
Multi-regional Hypothesis or Regional Continuity model There was one migration out of Africa, H. erectus, and this population evolved into modern H. sapiens in different regions at similar rates due to gene flow
Contact between global H. erectus populations maintains similar evolutionary rates Minor geographic variations in moderns related to original H. erectus dispersal Model suggests in situ evolution of archaic H. sapiens (Euros are Neanderthals) From Homo erectus to Homo sapiens sapiens:
The case of the Neanderthals The Neanderthals Earliest are possibly 300,000 years ago Classic range is 13030,000 years ago Geographical range is Europe and the Near East Neanderthal Sites
Neander Valley site, Germany La Chapelle-AuxSaints site, France Finds first used to characterize Neanderthals Evidence of the Neanderthals
Cranial features Large and low ca. 1300 cc Occipital is bunshaped Face juts forward Le Moustier, France, 45,000 BP Post-cranial skeleton designed for cold Shanidar, Iraq, 50,000 BP Physical characteristics of Neanderthals:
Thick, bony ridges over each eye Low, sloping forehead Absence of chin Forward-projecting face Thick and robust bones, curved slightly to support a muscular physique Cranial capacity similar to that of modern humans Evidence of the Neanderthals
Stone tools Subsistence Compassion Burial of the dead Speech? Art? Neanderthal "culture"?
Mousterian stone tools Development of spear points & importance of hunting Compassion: Shanidar Cave, Iraq Middle Paleolithic Archaeology: The Mousterian Industry
Mousterian stone tool industry replaces Acheulian, flake tools Denotes end of Lower and beginning of Middle Paleolithic period Named for Le Moustier cave in France Neanderthals in Europe and the Middle East during latter part of Pleistocene Neanderthals tools unlike earlier Acheulian Industry
Burial of dead, implications debated Were Neanderthals as "intelligent" as modern humans? Did Neanderthals have `culture'? Back to the Debate: Competing models The Origins of Modern Humans
Continuity or Replacement? Homo sapiens in Africa Molecular Biology and Homo sapiens Ecology and Homo sapiens The Spread of Homo sapiens Models of Modern Human Origins
Out of Africa/Eve/Replacement Multiregional hypothesis A compromise? The Genetic Replacement Model Model suggests genetic replacement of archaic H. sapiens (Euros are part Neanderthal) Figure 3.3 (p. 72) Lake Turkana, East Africa. A reconstruction of a young Homo ergaster boy, who died in a small lagoon on the western shores of Lake Turkana about 1.6 millions years ago. Drawing by Ian Everard. Archaeological evidence for behavior: Boxgrove, Schoningen, and Torralba Evidence for language (hyoid - Kebara) Archaic Homo sapiens in Europe: The Neanderthals Table 3.2 (p. 73) Human evolution: 3 mya to 200,000 years ago. Evaluating the Models
Are the oldest modern humans found in Africa and nowhere else? Maybe... Herto, Ethiopia Found in 2003 160,000 years old Biology: evaluating the models
Is there continuity between "archaics" and moderns only in Africa? Or, were there transitional forms in many regions? Transitional forms in China... Hexian and Zhoukoudian (H. erectus) and Dali (H. sapiens) skulls Portuguese `love child' from Leira: part Neanderthal, part modern human Did artifacts of African origin appear suddenly in Europe and Asia? Or, is there regional continuity in artifact types?
Regional continuity in Southeast Asia... What about behavior? Modern humans in Europe
Tendency toward higher population densities after 35,000 B.P. More regular social gatherings. Much more stylistic variation in stone artifacts. Growing importance of personal ornamentation as a way of communicating communal and personal identity The acquisition of materials from distant sources. Were modern humans and pre-modern ("archaics") contemporaries?
Yes (Homo heidelbergensis in Europe) Figure 3.23a (p. 102) Theories of the origins of modern humans, each of which interprets the fossil evidence in very different ways. (a) The multiregional model, which argues for the evolution of H. sapiens in many regions of the world. Figure 3.23b (p. 102) Theories of the origins of modern humans, each of which interprets the fossil evidence in very different ways. (b) The out-of Africa model, which has modern humanity evolving in Africa, then spreading to other parts of the world. End of class
(Week #5 Monday) Miscellaneous images What I got from this video was... What I wondered was... DEFINITIONS
1. sexual dimorphism 2. Oldowan 3. sagittal crest 4. Laetoli 5. Pliocene 6. Trinil 7. Out of Africa/population replacement hypothesis 8. mitochondrial DNA 9. occipital bun 10. brachiation ...
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This note was uploaded on 08/25/2008 for the course ANTH 151 taught by Professor Sheppard during the Spring '07 term at Hawaii.
- Spring '07