Midterm 1 Vocab

Midterm 1 Vocab - Chapter 1 An Overview of Cells and Cell...

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Midterm 1 Vocab!! Midterm 1 Vocab!! Chapter 1: An Overview of Cells and Cell  Research Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP): An adenine-containing nucleoside triphosphate that serves as a store of free energy in the cell. Amphipathic: A molecule that has both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions. Cell wall: A rigid, porous structure forming an external layer that provides structural support to bacteria, fungi, and plant cells. Cytoskeleton: A network of protein filaments that extends throughout the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. It provides the structural framework of the cell and is responsible for cell movements. Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function which takes place during the development of the embryo and leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs Endoplasmic reticulum (ER): An extensive network of membrane-enclosed tubules and sacs involved in protein sorting and processing as well as in lipid synthesis Endosymbiosis: A symbiotic relationship in which one cell resides within a larger cell. epithelial cells: Cells forming sheets (epithelial tissue) that cover the surface of the body and line internal organs. Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. eukaryotic cells: Cells that have a nuclear envelope, cytoplasmic organelles, and a cytoskeleton. Fibroblast: A cell type found in connective tissue. Glycolysis: The anaerobic breakdown of glucose. Golgi apparatus: A cytoplasmic organelle involved in the processing and sorting of proteins and lipids. In plant cells, it is also the site of the synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides. Granulocytes: Blood cells that are involved in inflammatory reactions. Hydrophilic: Soluble in water. Hydrophobic: Not soluble in water. Lymphocyte: A blood cell that functions in the immune response. B lymphocytes produce antibodies and T lymphocytes are responsible for cell mediated immunity. Lysosome: A cytoplasmic organelle containing enzymes that break down biological polymers. Macrophage: A type of white blood cell specialized for phagocytosis.
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Mitochondria: Cytoplasmic organelles responsible for synthesis of most of the ATP in eukaryotic cells by oxidative phosphorylation. Monocyte: A type of blood cell involved in inflammatory reactions Neuron: A nerve cell specialized to receive and transmit signals throughout the body. Nucleus: The most prominent organelle of eukaryotic cells; contains the genetic material. Peroxisome: A cytoplasmic organelle specialized for carrying out oxidative reactions. Phospholipids: The principal components of cell membranes, consisting of two hydrocarbon chains (usually fatty acids) joined to a polar head group containing phosphate. plasma membrane: A phospholipid bilayer with associated proteins that surrounds
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Midterm 1 Vocab - Chapter 1 An Overview of Cells and Cell...

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