Lecture 15-Life HistoryPopulationGrowth

Lecture 15-Life HistoryPopulationGrowth - LifeHistory...

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Life History Adaptations of an organism that affect life table values of: age-specific survival fecundity (reproductive rate, age at maturity, reproductive risk)
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Some Life History Traits Age at maturity Survival to breeding Annual adult survival/mortality (average of population)
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Some Life History Traits cont’d. Clutch size Clutches per year Egg weight Relative clutch mass (weight of all eggs)
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Some Life History Traits cont’d. Maturity (age at first reproduction) Parity (number of reproductive episodes) Fecundity (number of offspring per reproductive episode)
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Some Life History Traits cont’d. Senescence (aging; deterioration with age) Mortality (end of life)
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Lobelia telekii Lobelia keniensis
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Life History Trait Lobelia telekii Lobelia keniensis Life history semelparous iteroparous Habitat dry rocky slopes moist valleys Growth unbranched branched Reproduction large flowers, many seeds small flowers, fewer seeds Demography no adult survivorship drier sites = lower survivorship; less frequent repro.
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A = Normal mated females (lay more eggs; die sooner) B = Females without ovaries or eggs C = Virgin females, fewer eggs than normal D = Sterilized mated females
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Reproduction is Costly! Increased reproduction --> decreased survival Decreased reproduction --> increased survival
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Above - Relationship between age at sexual maturity and annual survival rate for various groups of birds (From Ricklefs, Economy of Nature 4th Ed. Freeman Trade-off function: selection favors growth (survival) or fecundity
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Selection Favors an Intermediate Number of Offspring
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http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.ericwpreston.com/images/SideblotchedLizard_1.jpg Side-Blotched Lizard, Uta Stansburiana
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Optimization of the trade-off between growth and reproduction: Tinkle 1969 and Hirshfield and Tinkle 1973 showed this tradeoff for lizards. Eastern Fence Lizard ( Sceloporus undulatus )
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Optimization of the trade-off between growth and reproduction: Three localities where resource availability is different: Texas: adult mortality = high S. Carolina: adult mortality = medium Ohio: adult mortality = low
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