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Nuerburg Rules - The Nuremberg C ode l The voluntary...

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Unformatted text preview: The Nuremberg C ode l. The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential. This means that the person involved should have legal capacity to give consent; should be so situated as to be able to exercise flee power of choice, without the intervention of any element of force, fiaud, deceit, duress, overreaching, or other ulterior form of constraint or coercion', and should have suflicient knowledge and comprehension of the elements of the subject matter involved as to enable him to make an understanding and enlightened decision. This latter element requires that before the acceptance of an alfinnative decision by the experimental subject there should be made knovm to him the nature, duration, and purpose of the experiment; the method and means by which it is to be conducted, all inconveniences and hazards reasonably to be expected, and the elTects upon his health or person which may possibly come fi’om his participation in the experiment. The duty and responsibility for ascertaining the quality of the consent rests upon each individual who initiates, directs or engages in the experiment. It is a personal duty and responsibility which may not be delegated to another with impunity. 2. The experiment should be such as to yield fiuitfiil results for the good of society, unprocurable by other methods or means of study, and not random and unnecessary in nature. 3. The experiment should be so designed and based on the results of animal experimentation and a knowledge of the natural history of the disease or other problem under study that the anticipated results will justify the performance of the experiment. 10. . The experiment should be so eondueted as to avoid all unneeessary physieal and mental suffering and injury. . No experiment should be eondueted vvhere there is an a priori reason to believe that death or disabling injury will oeeur', exeept, perhaps, in those experiments vvhere the experimental physieians also serve as subjeets. . The degree of risk to be taken should never exeeed that determined by the humanitarian importanee of the problem to be solved by the experiment. . Proper preparations should be made and adequate faeilities provided to proteet the experimental subjeet against even remote possibilities of dis ability, or death. . The experiment should be eondueted only by seientifieally qualified persons. The highest degree of skill and care should be required through all stages of the experiment of those who eonduet or engage in the experiment. . During the eourse of the experiment the human subjeet should be at liberty to bring the experiment to an end if he has reaehed the physieal or mental state vvhere eontinuation of the experiment seems to him to be impossible. During the eourse of the experiment the seientist in eharge must be prepared to terminate the experiment at any stage, if he has probable eause to believe, in the exereise of the good faith, superior skill, and earefiil judgement required of him, that a eontinuation of the experiment is likely to result in disability, or death to the experimental sub jeet. ...
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