SCH4U - Unit 3 - Version C - SCH4U Grade 12 University...

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SCH4UGrade 12University ChemistryLesson 9 – Thermochemistry
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SCH4U – ChemistryUnit 3 - IntroductionCopyright © 2008, Durham Continuing EducationPage 2 of 70Unit 3: Rates of ReactionEnergy transformations take place continually inside our bodies and in the world aroundus.For example, you transform the food you eat into useable cellular energy oradenosine triphosphate (ATP).Machines such as automobiles and power tools convertfuel into mechanical energy.In this unit you will learn more about energytransformations including the factors that affect reaction rate, and their kinetics.Overall Expectationsdemonstrate an understanding of the energy transformations and kinetics ofchemical changes;determine energy changes for physical and chemical processes and rates ofreaction,demonstrate an understanding of the dependence of chemical technologies andprocesses on the energetics of chemical reactions.
SCH4U – ChemistryLesson 9Copyright © 2008, Durham Continuing EducationPage 3 of 70Lesson 9:ThermochemistryHeat transformations take place everyday in both living organisms and machines.Cars,for example, convert gasoline into energy to propel the car forward.Heat is also lost inthe process. In living organisms, the process of cellular respiration converts simplesugars into cellular energy, carbon dioxide, and water.Again, heat is lost in theprocess. The study of heat transformation is called Thermochemistry, and it will be thefocus of this lesson.What You Will LearnAfter completing this lesson, you will;write thermochemical equations, expressing the energy change as a H value or as aheat term in the equation;determine heat of reaction, and use the data obtained to calculate the enthalpychange for a reactioncompare the energy changes resulting from physical change, chemical reactions,and nuclear reactions (fission and fusion);ThermochemistryThermochemistryis the study of energy changes involved in chemical reactions.These changes can be physical (i.e. melting ice,) chemical (rusting iron) or nuclear(nuclear fusion reactions in the Sun).All energy transformations are governed by the1stLaw of Thermodynamics, whichstates that the total energy of the universe is constant.Thermodynamics TermsThere are a set of terms that are necessary to understand when discussingthermodynamics. They are summarized following:Thermal energy: The energy available from a substance as a result of its motion of itsmolecules.For example, when you burn your foods, you break down sugars intocarbon dioxide, water, ATP and thermal energy (heat). The SI unit for measuring workand all forms of energy is the Joule (J).Chemical system: The set of reactants and products undergoing energytransformations. Chemical systems can beopen(energy and matter can move in orout),closed(only energy can move in or out), orisolated(neither energy or matter canmove in or out)
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Term
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Chemistry, Enthalpy, Thermochemistry, Reaction, Energy, Durham Continuing Education
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