MMW 1 11.26.07

MMW 1 11.26.07 - MMW 1 Monday Week Nine Final exam...

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MMW 1 11/26/07 Monday, Week Nine Final exam – cumulative, more focus on unit 3 Theories of how the state happened I. The origin of the state a) Background/intro -Headman (village) – Chief (Chiefdoms) –King (Kingdom) – Empire - More and more -stratification -Civilization – no real definition – Large scale society where the organization is quite complex -some people say reading and writing are not necessary -State – Centralized political system with the power to coerce – enforce -regulates affairs with citizens and outside states -Central government is what usually is in charge of external relations with other state governments -We want to know how it sustains itself -Empire – Large political unit, large territory or a collection of territories -i.e. Aztecs – over a lot of different people b) Major types of theories -Why do people give up sovereignty? 1. Voluntary -At some point in people’s history they voluntary gave up their individual rights -Decide that they’re going to make one single village with one ruler -Once agriculture was created – surplus of food allowed people to go into specialization
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-flaw = agriculture does not automatically produce surplus -No automatic surplus -Hydraulic theory – Associated with water -Lots of early civilizations were in areas that were dry 2. Coercine -Something forces them to go into sovereignty -most people do not willingly give up their right to rule themselves -State government developed before agriculture -Leaned more towards coercive c) Warfare -Seems to be involved in state formation -necessary -Not sufficient for state formation d) Theory of circumscription 1. Environmental circumscription -Area is surrounded by all sides -As long as you have room to grow you will keep growing -Surrounded by ocean, desert, mountains -Villages become crowded -trapped – starts intensifying -terracing, irrigate, eventually reach the point when you can’t do anymore to get food -Chief comes along and takes over one by one, eventually becomes kingdom
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2. Resource concentration -Amazon – People can spread out so there is no environmental circumscription -But there is a river with rich resources – will have villages wanting to be near river – resource circumscription -Will be willing to fight for the resource advantage 3. Social circumscription -Environment with plenty of room for the people
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MMW 1 11.26.07 - MMW 1 Monday Week Nine Final exam...

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