Lecture 12

Lecture 12 - Human Evolution Primates Anthropoids Hominoids...

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1 Human Evolution • Primates • Anthropoids • Hominoids (Apes) • Hominids Australopithicus Homo erectus neanderthalensis sapiens But first, a bit about vertebrates • Urochordates – Sea squirt. Only the larvae resemble chordates • Lancelets – Still a filter feeder, lacks brain or skull • Craniates – Hagfish. Still lack jaws, maintain a notochord as adults • Vertebrates – Cartilaginous (sharks and rays) or bony structures surround dorsal nerve chord (the vertebral column). Fish • Ray finned fish – Nearly all fish • Lobe finned fish – Coelacanth, lungfish – Have rod shaped bones surrounding muscle in their pectoral and pelvic fins
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2 Ray-finned fish Coelacanth Lungfish Acanthostega - 365MYA
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3 Terrestrial Vertebrates • Arose from the lobe-finned fish, a fairly humble lineage • Comprise amphibians, reptiles (including birds), and mammals • Among mammals, humans arose out of the group called primates.
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4 Primates • The mammalian order Primates include – Lemurs, tarsiers, anthropoids (monkeys and apes) • Humans are members of the ape group Lemur Tarsier Derived Characters of Primates • Most primates – Have hands and feet adapted for grasping • Primates also have – A large brain and short jaws – Forward-looking eyes close together on the face, providing depth perception – Well-developed parental care and complex social behavior – A fully opposable thumb Living Primates • There are three main groups of living primates – The lemurs of Madagascar and the lorises and pottos of tropical Africa and southern Asia Figure 34.37
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5 – The tarsiers of Southeast Asia • The oldest known anthropoid fossils, about 45 million years old – Indicate that tarsiers are more closely related to anthropoids Figure 34.38 60 50 40 30 20 10 Milions of years ago Ancestral primate Lemurs, lorises, and potos Tarsiers New World monkeys Old World monkeys Gibons Orangutans Gorilas Chim- panzes Humans Anthropoids 0 • New World and Old World monkeys – Underwent separate adaptive radiations during their many millions of years of separation Figure 34.39a, b (a) New World monkeys, such as spider monkeys (shown here), squir el monkeys, and capuchins, have a prehensile tail and nostrils that open to the sides. (b) Old World monkeys lack a prehensile tail, and their nostrils open downward. This group includes macaques (shown here), mandril s, baboons, and rhesus monkeys.
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6 • the hominoids – Consists of primates informally called apes Figure 34.40a–e (a) Gibbons, such as this Mul er's gibbon, are found only in southeastern Asia. Their very long arms and fingers are adaptations for brachiation. (b)
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Lecture 12 - Human Evolution Primates Anthropoids Hominoids...

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