MMW 4 8.13.08

MMW 4 8.13.08 - MMW 4 8.13.08 II The Mongol Conquests What...

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MMW 4 8.13.08 II. The Mongol Conquests: What Did It All Mean? A. Immediate effects 1. Unified, centralized rule: a Pax Mongolica ? -Mongolian Peace – Hungry for power, not blood -Once there is power, desire to get back to Mongol state -Peace logic – Opens up world trade network 2. Trade: effective control of routes, trade "nodes," stimulation of urban development 3. Wealth extraction: burdens on subjected populations, esp. rural (tax farming) 4. Religious tolerance (indifference? opportunism?) -Not interested in spreading religion -No hint of trying to cause everyone to practice their religion -Certainly tolerant, 5. The plague (pandemic, 1347-52) -Goes with trade – as people move, rats move with the trade -Bubonic plague moved with the caravans and ships – expands, moves inside this newly calmed and stabilized world trade system that the Mongols controlled -Important because nowadays disease are spread in a matter of hours Map: spread of the plague in Europe from Kaffa B. Enduring influences -Mongolia not a player in world affairs -Innovations at the time – horseback shooting, etc. are now obsolete -Ships that can transport in distance – made traditions useless -Heartland – isolated, landlocked, resources poor -In a matter of 400 years start to be left behind – early 1500s Europe is on the way with shipping technology -Left lasting influences -Important trade nodes and principalities get messed with by the intrusion of the mongols 1. Realignments of local/regional power balances Eclipse of Baghdad -Falls into a dull period
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-Before – there had been a Baghdad caliphate – outside pressure causes reduction of influence in Baghdad Eclipse of Kiev -Reduction of influence Elevation of Peking (aka Dadu, Ta-tu, Cambaluc, Khan-baliq) -New capital of the great Kahn – Easternmost Kahnnate – Beijing -Mongolian consolidates power in this area – raises status from position before to more northward 2. "Proto-national" responses -National – not states or countries -Typically want to be thinking about ethno-nationality – kind of identity in which people think of themselves as physically related -Idea that people who form certain groups were of certain familial relationships -I.E. map of non-Germany – a whole bunch of states and not a whole lot of nations -Idea is that when the nation is recognized – group together to form Russia China Persia (Iran) 3. Promotion of Islam Golden Horde: Berke Khan -- Muslim ruler, 1258; Islam made official after 1313 (Turkicization and Islamization of the Mongols, and thus conflict with Orthodox Russia) Il-khanids: Ghazan Khan converts, 1295 Chagatai khanate: almost all rulers Muslim after 1301 -Way of not making trouble -Shift to Islam in places like the Khanate of the Golden Horde -good strategic reasons to be on the same terms -Culture of conquered culture changes Mongol culture -Turkish – modern state of Turkey -Turkic – something much bigger than ottoman empire
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4. Cultural transmission -Culture, literature, skill; things we share and express moves with the people
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This note was uploaded on 09/04/2008 for the course MMW 4 taught by Professor Herbst during the Summer '07 term at UCSD.

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MMW 4 8.13.08 - MMW 4 8.13.08 II The Mongol Conquests What...

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