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Psc101 Coss Key Words

Psc101 Coss Key Words - Review for Second Midterm...

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Review for Second Midterm Examination Researchers Ivan Pavlov B. F. Skinner Paul Gold (examined the role of epinephrine and glucose on rat passive avoidance test - memory of drinking tunnel shock) Sally and Bennet Shawitz (examine fMRI and found female hemipheric symmetry in auditory association cortex) Sandra Witelson (studied sex difference in number of neurons in auditor association cortex) Christina Williams (12 arm radial arm maze and the effects of aromatase inhibitor on male spatial maze learning behavior) Robert Sapolsky (discussed baboon dominance hierarchy and cortisol levels) Walter Cannon (flight/ fight homeostasis= regulation) Hans Selye (general adaptation syndrome, alarm stage, resistance stage, exhaustion stage) Bela Bohus (oxytocin's affect on amnesia for shock experience in drinking tunnel in rats) John Vandenbergh (interuterine position of mice and spatial behavior with 2M females adults as more male like in having large home ranges) Doreen Kimura (sex differences in spatial cognition, picture perception, throwing) Swen O. Ebbeson (Parcellation Theory of brain evolution) Timothy De Voogd and Fernando Nottebohm (effects of testosterone on canary singing and spine formation of the terminal dendrites of RA (vocal motor center) neurons Arthur P. Arnold (effects of sex hormones on bird brain development and song expression) Cara Wellman (effects of 3 weeks of corticosterone injection producing dendritic growth in rat medial prefrontal cortex) Rupshi Mitra (In adult rats, 10 days of stress increases the number of dendritic spines in the amygdala and increases fear in the open section of a dark maze, indicating increased connectivity of this emotions-generating brain structure) Key words and some definitions Natural selection/fitness proximate vs. ultimate causes reactive vs. active organism microcephalic patients habituation vs. dishabituation Extinction Spontaneous recovery Generalization vs. discrimination Nondifferential training (CS+ reinforcement only), Differential training (CS+ and CS - no reinforcement presented alternatively on trials) Higher-order conditioning first-order CS-US (primary reinforcer) pairing second-order CS1 as secondary reinforcer paired with new CS2 Classical conditioning Interstimulus presentation intervals delayed, trace, simultaneous, backwards Eliciting construct (CS elicits CR) one-way causation due to yoked or confined animal Learning acquisition and extinction when US is withheld
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Operant conditioning cumulative record schedule of reinforcement (fixed, variable ratios and fixed and variable intervals) rate of response (most important, whereas strength of response not typically measured) two-way causation affected by animal's motivation (hunger, fear) Reinforcement is emitted by response Positive reinforcer (work to obtain) vs. negative reinforcer (work to remove) Successive approximations Shaping a single behavior, chaining several behaviors into sequence followed by reward Aristotelian causes efficient (forces in system) material (state of system) final (goals or purpose of system)
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