Test5 - 08/07/2008 10:47:00 Cardiovascular Diseases CVD is...

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Unformatted text preview: 08/07/2008 10:47:00 Cardiovascular Diseases CVD is the #1 killer of men and women > 40. Hypertension A. What is it? Sustained mean arterial pressure B. Why is it an important disease? Over time, it results in end-organ damage C. What is the incidence in the US? Middle age Americans face a 90% chance D. Why is hypertenion seen in older individuals? Changes in arterial structure. Stiffer connective tissues these make these arteries/veins easier to stretch out. Hypertrophy of smooth muscles Hypertension A. What is primary hypertension? Hypertension Primary (90%) Fewer nephrons -> less hypertensic More nephrons -> more likely hypertensic B. What is one cause of primary hypertension? C. What is secondary hypertension? 10% caused by some other source D. What usually causes secondary hypertension? Kidney disease white coat HTN o when you go into a dr. office you are HTN, but everywhere else you are fine! Pre-eclampsia o Pressure is on your arteries. Usually become hypertensic afterwards Obesity o More plasma! o For some reason obese individuals have enhanced SNS levels o Total PR is higher o More length of blood vessels the greater the resistance o 21% Americans 24.7% Georgians are obese Metabolic Syndrome o Central obesity Apples o Increased triglycerides (LDL) o Insulin Resistane o Prothrombotic state (clots easy) o Raised BP o Proinflammatory state o ^^^^ last few years o E. How does hypertension affect the heart? F. How does hypertension affect the vasculature? G. How does hypertension affect the kidneys? H. Why does it happen? Arteriosclerosis A. What is arteriosclerosis? When vessel walls thicken and lose elasticity B. What is atherosclerosis? Is more specific, indicating damage to endothelium and fatty/calcified deposits in the tunica media C. What causes atherosclerosis? No one knows Some think it is a response to injury Trasformation of smooth muscle cells into plaque Lipid infiltration Hyper-homocysteinemia o Tx=Folate Accumulations of cell masses due to shear force? All or none of the above Cholesterol Is a Major Component of Atherosclerotic Plaques A. Cholesterol Metabolism B. HDLs and LDLs C. Factors Affecting Cholesterol Concentrations Myocardial Infarct A. What is an MI? B. What are the symptoms of an MI in males?...
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Test5 - 08/07/2008 10:47:00 Cardiovascular Diseases CVD is...

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