Ch14_Solutions_1 - Chapter 14: Solutions Brady and Senese,...

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Chapter 14: Solutions Brady and Senese, 4 th Edition
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Chapter 14: Solutions Solution Homogeneous mixture Composed of solvent and solute(s) Solvent More abundant component of mixture Solute(s) Less abundant or other component(s) of mixture Ex. Lactated Ringer’s solution NaCl, KCl, CaCl 2 , NaC 3 H 5 O 3 in water
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Why Solutions Form? Two Driving Forces behind Formation of Solution 1. Entropy/Disorder 2. Intermolecular Forces Whether or not a solution forms depends on both opposing forces
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1. Entropy/Disorder 2 gases mix spontaneously due to random motions Mix without outside work Never separate spontaneously Tendency of systrm left to itself, to become increasingly disordered Entropy effect Gas A Gas B separate mixed
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Strong driving force in nature A system, left to itself, will tend towards the most probable state Gaseous Solutions Only have to consider Entropy Attractive (Intermolecular) forces are not important Liquid Solutions Entropy is a driving force Attractive (Intermolecular) forces are very important Spontaneous Mixing
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Intermolecular Forces (IMF) Attractive forces between solute & solvent hold solution together Strength of intermolecular attractive forces depends on both solute & solvent Initially solute + solvent separate Solute molecules held together by IMFs Solvent molecules held together by IMFs When Mix, for solution to form, Attractions between solvent & solute must be on same order as attractions between solute alone & solvent alone
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Solutions of Liquid in Liquid 1. Completely Miscible 2 liquids that can be mixed in any proportions CH 3 CH 2 OH + H 2 O 2. Immiscible One liquid is virtually insoluble in the second C 6 H 6 + H 2 O Benzene & water OH
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Process of Dissolution Polar solutes interact with & dissolve in polar solvents H-bonding solutes interact with & dissolve in H-bonding solvents
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Process of Dissolution Non-pola r solutes interact with & dissolve in non-polar solvents Finally, Dipoles of solvent may induce dipoles in nonpolar or less polar solute, effecting dissolution
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Why Such Different Behavior? When liquids combine
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This note was uploaded on 09/02/2008 for the course CHEM 1220 taught by Professor Meghee during the Spring '08 term at St. Johns Duplicate.

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Ch14_Solutions_1 - Chapter 14: Solutions Brady and Senese,...

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