Ch14_Solutions_2 - Concentrated Solutions Saturated...

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Concentrated Solutions Saturated solution Solute is at equilibrium with dissolved solute Solution in which no more solute can be dissolved at a given temperature Unsaturated solution Solution containing less solute than maximum amount One that is able to dissolve more solute Supersaturated Solution Contains more solute than required for saturation Addition of more dissolved solute to saturated solution results in precipitation of excess solid
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Solubility Mass of solute that forms saturated solution with given mass of solvent at specified temperature Units: If extra solute is added to saturated solution, extra solute will remain as separate phase Dynamic equilibrium exists between solute in two For a solute in contact with a saturated solution: dissolved d undissolve solute solute solvent solute g g 100
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Effect of T on Solubility of Solids & Liquids in Liquid Solvent If heat is absorbed when solute dissolves, solubility when T . If energy is released when solute dissolves, the solubility when T . When apply “stress” to an equilibrium (by T), the equilibrium will shift in a way that relieves (absorbs or minimizes) the stress. LeChâtlier’s Principle dissolved d undissolve solute    energy        solute + energy     solute        solute + dissolved d undissolve
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Solubility of Most Substances Increases with Temperature Most substances become more soluble as T . Amount solubility Varies considerably Depends on substance
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Effect of T on Gas Solubility in Liquids Solubility of gases usually as T Table 14.2 Solubilities of Common Gases in Water Gas 0 °C 20 °C 50 °C 100 °C N 2 0.0029 0.0019 0.0012 0 O 2 0.0069 0.0043 0.0027 0 CO 2 0.335 0.169 0.076 0 SO 2 22.8 10.6 4.3 1.8 NH 3 89.9 51.8 28.4 7.4
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Case Study: Dead Zones During the industrial revolution, factories were built on rivers so that the river water could be used as a coolant for the machinery. The hot water was dumped back into the river and cool water recirculated. After some time, the rivers began to darken and many fish died. The water was not found to be contaminated by the machinery. What was the cause of the mysterious fish kills? increased temperature lowered amounts of  dissolved oxygen
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Effects Of Temperature On Solubility Solubility varies with temperature according to enthalpy of solvation Efficiency of solvation process (K) depends on enthalpy (ΔH) in Joules, ideal gas constant (R), If dissolution process is endothermic (ΔH is +), increasing temperature results in greater efficiency ) 1 1 ( ) ln( 2 1 2 1 T T R H K K - - =
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Solubility as P Why? P means
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Ch14_Solutions_2 - Concentrated Solutions Saturated...

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