andrea lecture 2 - Extracellular Matrix Andrea I. Alford,...

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Extracellular Matrix Andrea I. Alford, Ph.D. Orthopaedic Research Laboratories aialford@umich.edu
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Cells in all tissues secrete a specialized extracellular matrix Connective tissue ECM is abundant Cells are sparse and have minimal contact ECM bears load Epithelial and endothelial cells secrete a thin basement membrane Cells bear load:cell-cell juntions.
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Extracellular Matrix ECM contributes to tissue structural integrity ECM provides a scaffold for cell migration and tissue formation during development and wound healing BUT the ECM provides more than structure
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There is a dynamic-reciprocal relationship between cells and ECM ECM mediates changes in gene expression via mechanical and chemical pathways induced by transmembrane receptors Cells secrete ECM and regulate its assembly and degradation.
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Published by AAAS F. J. Alenghat et al., Sci. STKE 2002, pe6 (2002) Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of how forces applied through the ECM (A) or directly to the cell surface (B) travel to integrin-anchored focal adhesions through matrix attachments or cytoskeletal filaments, respectively
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Extracellular Matrix Collagens More than 20 types » each composed of three alpha chains which are encoded by separate genes » Number evolved by duplication of evolutionarily conserved domains separated by introns Types I, II, III, V, XI - fibril forming Types IX, XII- fibril-associated Type IV, VII – network forming
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The Collagen alpha chain is repeating gly-x-y Glycine is the only amino acid that can fit inside the triple helix x=proline y=hydroxyproline
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Collagen synthesis
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andrea lecture 2 - Extracellular Matrix Andrea I. Alford,...

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