promised not to use war to resolve "disputes or conflicts of whatever nature or of whatever origin they may be, which may arise among them". Parties failing to abide by this promise "should be denied of the benefits furnished by this treaty". It was signed by Germany, France and the United States on August 27, 1928, and by most other nations soon after. Sponsored by France and the U.S., the Pact renounced the use of war and called for the peaceful settlement of disputes. Similar provisions were incorporated into the UN Charter and other treaties and it became a stepping stone to a more activist American policy. 7. The stock market crash and people losing faith in banks, and buying on margin. 8. Keynesian economics is the view that in the short run, especially duringrecessions, economic output is strongly influenced by aggregate demand (total spending in the economy). In the Keynesian view, aggregate demand does not necessarily equal the productive capacity of the economy; instead, it is influenced by a host of factors and sometimes behaves erratically, affecting production, employment, and inflation. 11. The Italian government’s democracy was in distress, the existence of hostility about the Italian war effort, the economic issues including high inflation, labor unrest, and lack of jobs after the return of soldiers. 12. Mussolini starts his own newspaper promoting fascism called “Il Poplo” which helped fascist ideas gain roots. Mussolini creates an appealing platform for laborers. He creates a political party and they become increasingly popular in elections.