Holocaust Midterm1 - The Holocaust Midterm For the...

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The Holocaust: Midterm For the following phrases and words, please: a) provide a brief definition, and b) elaborate the relevance of the term by situating it within the larger context of this course. In other words, how is the term tied to larger themes and course concerns? (four points) 1) “You are the animals of my fears, animals, animals” In Arieti’s book The Parnas; A Scene from the Holocaust, these words were said by Giuseppe Pardo Roques to the German soldiers who invaded his house in Pisa, killing all his houseguests and beating him to death. Throughout his life Pardo had a crippling fear of animals so intense that it prevented him from going so much as a couple blocks away from his house, preventing his leave from Pisa in the face of known danger. In his last moments he says to the Nazi perpetrators “ You are what I feared throughout my life, and what I can now finally face, you who have accepted evil and become bearers of evil itself […] You are the animals of my fears!” (p 123). By equating the animals to the Nazi’s and subsequently evil, Arieti takes away the individual humanity of each person who chose to subscribe to the Nazi regime, and in a way he enables forgiveness. Forgiveness not for what they have done, but for falling to the “epidemic of evil” (p 1) which was the third Reich, in a way saying as inhuman as the acts which were committed by these people themselves, for some it was not committed by these people, but the propagandist hive mind which Germany evolved into in the 1930’s. At the same time, he does place blame onto the Nazis for accepting this evil regardless of its cause. 2) Eliminationist Antisemitism Eliminationist Antisemitism is the belief that the mass murder of the Jews during the Holocaust was the summation of centuries of German anti-Semitism, and because of this historic anti-Semitism Germans were more than willing to go forth with killing Jews. In other words, Hitler gave regular Germans an excuse to do what they always wanted to do anyway. This belief can largely be disproven due to the fact majority of Germans did not vote for the Nazi party, even when the election was heavily biased only 44% of the population voted for him. Aditionally, concentration camps were originally built for political prisoners, and the ‘final solution’ idea did not come up until 1941. 3) Pogrom Evolving from the Russian word ‘to break’, pogroms are organized attacks on people of a certain ethnic group, most commonly Jewish. It often involved humiliation and destruction or theft of property and businesses, as well as murder and rape. They were fairly common but relatively small in the Russian Empire, and evolved into large mass scale pogroms such as Kristallnacht. 4) Nuremberg Laws Nuremberg Laws were introduced in September 1935, and evolved out of the continual German effort to identify and segregate the Jews from the ‘pure’ German population. They forbade marriage and sex
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between Jews and non-Jews, banned the employment of non-Jewish females under 45 in Jewish households, and declared only those of German blood were able to be German citizens. Effectively, this
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