Chapter 1 - Chapter 1 Stuff in the Air Matter- stuff, that...

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Chapter 1 Stuff in the Air Matter- stuff, that is physically present, takes up space and has mass Mass- is a fundamental concept in physics, roughly corresponding to the intuitive idea of how much matter there is in an object Weight- measure of the attractive force (gravitational pull) between the object and the earth Units- Mass in grams (metric), slug (USCU), weight in Newton (metric), pounds (USCU) o USCU are also used in Liberia and Myanmar (Burma) The Composition of Air Percentages o Nitrogen 78% Diatomic model, good medium, the majority of the air o Oxygen 21% o Other gases 1% Includes CO 2 , argon, carbon monoxide, etc. Concentration varies It is a mixture - a physical combination of two or more substances present in variable amounts Pure Substances and Mixtures Pure substances can be elements or compounds (of several elements at fixed ratios) but all of the same things o Diamonds are pure (contain nothing but) carbon in a particular crystalline form Mixtures contain two or more different pure substance at variable ratios— in theory these can be separated by physical means o Granite is a course-grained mixture of quartz, feldspar, and several other minerals
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Pure Substances Atoms- smallest unit of a pure elemental substance that can exist as a stable, independent entity Elements- pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler ones by any chemical means o Different types of atoms Molecules or Compounds- pure substance made up of two or more elements in a fixed, characteristic chemical combination or held together by chemical bonds in a certain spatial arrangement Elements and Compounds Matter, stuff with mass, is comprised of Atoms A pure substance can be in a elemental form or in chemical compounds (typically inorganic) or Molecules (typically C based) Elemental symbols: o C for carbon, H for hydrogen Chemical formulas o Methane = CH 4 Law of Definite Composition Any compound (salt) or molecule is ALWAYS made up of elements in the same proportion by mass The source should not matter If you get NACL (table salt) from a mine or dried sea water if not pure, impurities may vary Classifying Matter Can a physical process separate it? All Matter
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This note was uploaded on 09/05/2008 for the course CH 54130 taught by Professor Sparks,s during the Fall '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Chapter 1 - Chapter 1 Stuff in the Air Matter- stuff, that...

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