Unit One - Biological Science Notes Four Macromolecules 1....

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Biological Science Notes Four Macromolecules 1. Carbs 2. Proteins 3. Lipids (Fats and oils) 4. Nucleons (DNA, RNA, etc) Building Blocks (Large to Small) Matter – Anything that has weight and takes up space Elements – Basic building blocks of matter that cannot be broken down Atoms – The smallest part of an element that retains the element’s physical and chemical properties Molecules – Groups of atoms bonded together Atomic Science Three parts to an atom Proton – positive charge, weighs 1 Neutron – no charge, weighs 1 Electron – negative charge, no weight Electrons o Travel in pairs around the nucleus of an atom o If no partner, it seeks to jump to another atom This creates Ions Ion – An atom with either a positive or negative charge due to loss/gain of electrons Isotopes – Atoms with the same atomic number but a different atomic mass due to difference in the number of neutrons Radioactive Isotopes – Unstable Atoms that are unbalanced and break off pieces of itself 9/5/07 Properties of Water o 3 Forms Solid (dense) Liquid (room temp.) Gas (high heat) o Used as a solvent for many things o What holds water together? Hydrogen bonds between negative and positive hydrogen atoms Weak bonds Acids and Bases o Acids – substances that dissociate and release hydrogen atoms Liquid drinks, vinegar
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o Bases – substances that take up the hydrogen atoms or release hydroxyl ions Blood, eggs, salt, baking soda, cleaners What is the pH scale? o Measure of hydrogen ion concentration o Scale 0-14 Above 7 base Below 7 acid Making and breaking down organic molecules o Dehydration reaction – the removal of water that allows subunits to link together into larger molecules Water is removed from a chem. Equation to allow large molecules to join (dehydration synthesis) o Hydrolysis Reaction – the addition of water that breaks larger molecules into their subunits Adding water into chem. Equation to break shit down (digestion in your body) What organic molecules are found in living organisms? o Carbohydrates Made up of… subunits called Monosaccharides o Mono also known as hexses, usually referring to sugar Made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in which the h and o atoms are in a 2:1 ratio Function as short and long term energy storage Found in simple and complex forms Simple Carbohydrates Monosaccharide – 1 carbon ring as found in glucose o Glucose, Monos, Galatose, Fructose Disaccharide – 2 carbon rings as found in maltose o Maltose – malt sugar o Lactose – milk and sugar o Sucrose – table sugar Complex Carbohydrates Polysaccharides made of many carbon rings o Glycogen – carbs from animal sources o Starches – carbs from plants o Cellulose – aka fiber from plants
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This note was uploaded on 03/17/2008 for the course BI SC 004 taught by Professor Mitchellameliav during the Fall '08 term at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

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Unit One - Biological Science Notes Four Macromolecules 1....

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