APUSH Chapter 2 NotesThe Invasion and Settlement of North America 1550-1700I. The Rival Imperial Models of Spain, France, and HollandA. New Spain: Colonization and Conversion1.Spanish adventurers were the first Europeans to explore the southern and western United States.2.By the 1560s their main goal was to prevent other Europeans from establishing settlements.3.In 1565, Spain established St. Augustine, the first permanent European settlement in America; most of Spain’s other military outposts were destroyed by Indian attacks.4.In response to the Indian attacks, the Spanish adopted the Comprehensive Orders for New Discoveries (1573) and employed missionaries.5.For Franciscans, religious conversion and assimilation went hand in hand, but Spanish rule was not benevolent.6.Protected by Spanish soldiers, missionaries whipped Indians who continued to practice polygamy, smashed religious idols, and severely punished those who worshipped traditional gods.7.Most Native Americans tolerated the Franciscans, but when Christian prayers failed to prevent disease, drought, and Apache raids, many returned to their ancestral religions and blamed the Spanish for their ills.8.Santa Fe was established in 1610 by the Spanish, who reestablished the system of missions and forced labor there after Indian revolts in 1598.9.Forced labor, the imposition of Christianity, drought, and food shortages motivated the Indian shaman Popé in 1680 to lead the peoples of two dozen Pueblos in a carefully coordinated rebellion known as the Pueblo Revolt, which killed over 400 Spaniards.10. Exhausted by a generation of warfare, the Pueblos a decade later joined with the Spanish to protect their lands against nomadic Indians.11. Spain maintained its northern empire but did not achieve religious conversion or cultural assimilation of the Native Americans.12. The costs of expansion in Florida and New Mexico delayed the Spanish settlement of California.B. New France: Furs and Souls, and Warfare1.Quebec, established in 1608, was the first permanent French settlement; New France became a vast fur-trading enterprise.2.The Hurons, in exchange for protection from the Iroquois, allowed French traders into their territory.3.French traders set in motion a series of devastating Indian wars over the fur market, and they also brought disease to the Indians, which killed much of the native population.4.Beginning in the 1640s, the New York Iroquois seized control of the fur trade and forced the Hurons to migrate to the north and west.
5.The Iroquois organized themselves into a confederation of Five Nations—Senecas, Cayugas, Onondagas, Oneidas, and Mohawks—to extend control over territory and the fur trade.6.Conflicts with the French, known as “beaver wars,” severely reduced Iroquois population during the late 1600s despite alliance with England.