Cheat sheet for test #2

Cheat sheet for test #2 - Chapter 6: Jeremy bentham- cam to...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 6: Jeremy bentham- cam to believe that the publics views had to be taken into account if leaders were to govern properly. Public opinion- the politically relevant opinions held by ordinary citizens that they express openly. Universe/population- the group of people whose opinion you are trying to gage. Sample- the group of people you are going to ask, and this group must be part of the universe. Respondent- the individuals who make the sample. Pollster- the person asking the question. George Gallup- father of the public opinion poll. Discovered scientific polling- polls based on systematic sampling. He developed the principle of utility, which holds that action is acceptable if it promotes an increased amount of pleasure and unacceptable if it promotes an increased amount of pain. Gallup technique- 1. Select the sample, a. stratified quota b. random sampling. 2. Reaching the sample, a. cost vs. efficiency (least expensive technique is the least effective. 3. Developing the survey, a. bias is bad. Sampling error- the degree to which the sample estimates might differ from what the population actually thinks. Probability sampling- taking a sample in which each individual in the population has a known probability of being chosen at random for inclusion. Self selecting- someone to join into the sample. Halo Effect- when the respondent thinks they know what the pollster wants to hear, so they give that answer. Honesty of Respondents- we have to assume the respondents know what they are talking about and are telling the truth. Volatility of time- things can happen over time that can change your data. Political Socialization- what socializes you to think politically. The learning process by which people acquire theor opinions, beliefs, and values. Formal- learned in school, lectures, etc. Informal- learned by family, dinner table, etc. Selective perception- the idea that you see what you want to see and hear what you want to hear. Agents of socialization- : 1. Parents- they get us first and for the longest. 2. School- praise the countrys economic and political systems. Schools also contribute to Americans sense of social equality. 3. Peer group- informal, self reinforcement. Reinforce what a person already believes. Most people trust the opinions of their friends and associates. 4. Media- negative factor, portray sex, murder, drama, etc. 5. Life- teaches lessons. 6. Demographics- race, gender, economic status. Money can affect your perception. 7. Political leaders- citizens look to political leaders as guides to opinion. Example: we looked to Bush and shared his views when he spoke about Al Qaeda being responsible for 9/11. 8. Churches- Most people belong to a religion that includes teachings on the proper form of society. People say that religion has answers to many of the problems facing todays society. Liberals- are those who say that government should do more to solve the countrys problems and who say that government ought not to support traditional values at the expense of less conventional ones. A liberal would be inclined to favor an increase in government to solve the countrys problems and who say that government ought not to support traditional values at the expense of less conventional ones....
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This note was uploaded on 08/14/2008 for the course PHIL 102 taught by Professor Peter during the Spring '07 term at San Diego State.

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Cheat sheet for test #2 - Chapter 6: Jeremy bentham- cam to...

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