Political Science Final

Political Science Final - Affirmative action- a term that...

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Affirmative action- a term that refers to programs designed to ensure that women, minorities, and other traditionally disadvantaged groups have full and equal opportunities in employment, education, and other areas of life. Age-cohort tendency- tendency for a significant break in the pattern of political socialization to occur among younger citizens, usually as the result of a major event or development that disrupts preexisting beliefs. Agenda setting- the power of media through news coverage to focus the public’s attention and concern on particular events, problems, issues, personalities, and so on. Agents of socialization- those agents, such as the family and media, that have significant impact on citizens’ political socialization. Air wars- a term that refers to the fact that modern campaigns are often a battle of opposing televised advertising campaigns. Alienation- a feeling of personal powerlessness that includes notion that gov doesnt not care about the opinions of people like oneself. Anti-federalists- a term used to describe opponents of the constitution during the debate over ratification. Apathy- feeling of personal nonintrest or unconcern with politics. Appellate jurisdiction- the authority of a given court to review cases that have already been tried in lower courts and are appealed to it by the losing party; such a court is called an appeals court or appellate court. Authoritarian gov- a form of gov. in which leaders, though they admit to no limits on their powers, are effectively limited by other centers of power in society. Harsh rule power limited by other institutions in society like churches , corps, wealthy families. Gov. in military coups in Africa and south America.-restrict free expression Authority- recognized right of an individual or institution to exercise power. Autocracy- form of gov in which absolue control rests with single person like king or dictator-part of democracy. Balanced budget- when the gov tax revenues for the year are roughly eequal to expenditures. Bill- proposed law (leg act) within congress or another legislature. Bill of rights- first 10 amendments to constituion include such rights as freedoms of speech and trial by jury. Bipolar (power structure)- power structure dominated by two powers only as in case of U.S. and the Soviet Union during cold war. Block grants- federal grants in aid that permit state and local officials to decide how the money will be spent within a general area such as education or health like categorical grants. Brief- a written statement by a party in court case that details its arguments. budget deficit- situation when gov expenditures exceed its tax and other revenues. Budget surplus- gov tax and other rev exceeds its expenditures. Bureaucratic rule- tendency of large scale orgs to develop into the bureaucratic form with the effect that administrators make key policy decisions. Theory from German socialist max Weber argued that decision making power devolves to career admins whose experience and knowledge of policy issues exceeds those of elected officials. Cabinet-
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Political Science Final - Affirmative action- a term that...

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