CHAPTER 27: EMPIRE AND EXPANSION America Turns Outward - Farmers and factory owners began to look to foreign markets for profit, increase in population + wealth + production capacity made US extremely powerful - Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst encouraged foreign exploits, Josiah Strong’s Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis called for Americans to spread religion and values to other nations - Theodore Roosevelt and Henry Cabot Lodge believed in social Darwinism, Africa was being colonized, Germany + Russia + Japan were active in China - Alfred Thayer Mahan’s The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783 (1890) said sea power was key to world domination, people wanted better canals and navies - James G Blaine “Big Sister” policy called for US involvement in Latin American markets, spoke out in Pan-American Conference (1889) - US and German navies almost fought in Samoan Islands, US and Italy almost fought over lynching in New Orleans, US demanded that Chile pay an indemnity for death of sailors, US almost fought Canada over seal hunting near Pribilof Islands - US had a new wave of aggressive nationalism, mood brought conflicts with Britain, discovery of gold caused boundary dispute between British Guiana and Venezuela - President Cleveland and Secretary of State Richard Olney invoked Monroe Doctrine, Olney informed Britain that the US was the master of the west - Britain ignored Olney’s message, Cleveland sent message to Congress to make a boundary or line or else military force would be used for territory - Britain backed off and consented to arbitration, Britain was already hostile with Kaiser Wilhelm (Germany) and the Dutch Boers in South Africa, Britain instead began to try to reconcile with America (known as the Great Rapprochement) Spurning the Hawaiian Power - Hawaii was a provisioning point for shippers + sailors + whalers, New England missionaries went to Hawaii (1820), Hawaii became important for sugar production - American State Department warned other nations to stay away from Hawaii, a treaty gave US naval-base rights to Pearl Harbor (1887) - European diseases reduced Hawaiian native population to ⅙, Chinese and Japanese workers were imported to tend to the sugar mills and canefields - McKinley Tariff barred Hawaiian products, white planters tried to annex Hawaii but was hindered by Queen Liliuokalani, American settlers and troops revolted (1893) - Cleveland (Democratic) replaced Harrison (Republican) as president, Cleveland believed Americans wronged Queen Liliuokalani and withdrew the treaty of annexation of Hawaii, Hawaii was left alone until 1898
Cubans Rise in Revolt - American tariff of 1894 crippled Cuba’s sugar production, Cuban insurrectos tried to drive out the Spanish with scorched-earth policies, destructive tactics harmed American interests in Cuba - Americans sympathized with the Cubans, American business had $50 million investment stake and $100 million investment stake on Cuba, Senator Lodge believed Cuba was key to control of the Mexican Gulf -
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 6 pages?
- Winter '17
- Theodore Roosevelt, Open Door Policy