Lecture Outline 2 - Biomolecules, Cells, & Tissues...

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Biomolecules, Cells, & Tissues Biomolecules and Molecular Interactions Silverthorn Ref. Chapter 2 Learning Objectives: 2-1. Define and Characterize the subatomic particles of atoms and apply atomic number, atomic mass, and mole principles 2-2. List chemical elements of living organisms and explain their importance of human biomolecules through their usefulness 2-3. Describe the basic chemical reaction and apply universal laws that influences reactivity 2-4. Recognize and associate biomolecular names to chemical types, chemical formulas and attributable characteristics so that their usefulness in living cells is revealed 2-5. Explain Enzyme function with changes in activation energy and regulatory advantage to the governance of cellular metabolism 2-6. Define an aqueous solution and explain the principle of molarity in comparing solution differences in bodily fluid compartments 2-7. Explain the behavior of the biomolecules in aqueous solutions and how bodily solutions compare Key Terminology Atom, Periodic Table, Atomic Number / Mass, Proton, Neutron, Electron, Isotope, Functional Group, Molecular bonds, Biomolecule, Carbohydrate, Lipid , Protein, Amino acid, DNA, RNA, Polar, Non- Polar, Dipole, Anabolic and Catabolic reactions, Energy, Equilibrium, concentration, solution, molarity, osmolarity, mole, reactant, product, chemical bond, solubility, pH, ion, covalent, hydrophobic, hydrophilic, electronegativity, molecular weight I. Chemistry of the living cell – Metabolic Work A. Atoms and Elements 1. Components, Size and Weight- proton, neutron, electron (atom is stable when e- shell is full) 2. Electronegativity and Reactivity- B. The Essential and Trace Elements- Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen C. The basic Chemical Reaction 1. Reactants and Products 2. Universal Laws on Chemical Reactions
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a. Equilibrium and Entropy b. Potential (body stores energy to be the source of input energy), Kinetic (use of energy to create reaction), and Activation Energy (barrier to getting a reaction started) c. Spontaneous and Catalyzed Reactions- to prohibit random reactions, reactions are catalyzed 3. Work is a measurement of Energy Expenditure 4. Exergonic- lowers free energy (catabolic/destructive); occur randomly bc of low activation energy 5. Endergonic- increase in energy (anabolic/synthetic); do not occur randomly bc of high activation energy D. Chemical Bonds and Molecule Formation 1. Bond type and energy a. Weak Bonds -Van der Waals Forces- proton-electron attraction; Hydrogen attracted due to dipole-- flexibility in molecule makes it more adaptable b. Strong Bonds: Ionic (attraction b/n + and -), Covalent (sharing of e-) 2. Molecule Characterization a. Mass and Complexity- molecular weight; simple or compound? b. Polarity- equal sharing of e- = nonpolar (not soluble)
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This note was uploaded on 08/14/2008 for the course BY 116 taught by Professor Gilchrist during the Summer '08 term at University of Alabama at Birmingham.

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Lecture Outline 2 - Biomolecules, Cells, & Tissues...

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