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Lecture Outline 5.2 - Lecture Outline 5 Part 2 The Nervous...

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Lecture Outline 5: Part 2- The Nervous Impulse Silverthorn Ref. Ch. 8 Learning Objectives for Understanding the Nerve Impulse Communication Method 1. Explain the divisions and organization of the nervous system to enlighten the benefits and limitation of this system 2. Identify the working characteristics of neurons and neuroglia cell types 3. Explain how the resting potential is influenced by graded and action potentials. 4. Describe the work of an action potential in terms of polarity change and Ion movement 5. Explain why the strength of a nervous signal is proportional to the original stimulus 6. Explain how receptor potential, Nerve energy, Presynaptic Gates & Postsynaptic summations are important for accurate interpretations with nerve signals Key Terms Action potential - afferent - axon – circuit - CNS -conductance - convergence - dendrite - divergence - efferent - excitatory postsynaptic potential - ganglia - graded potential - innervate - interneuron - inhibitory postsynaptic potential - motor neuron - myelin - sensory neuron - neurotransmitter – nerve - neuroglia – PNS- Refractory period - repolarization - depolarization - hyperpolarization - leak channel - voltage gated channel - summation - threshold - presynaptic modulation - synapse I. Nervous System Organization – Overview A. Anatomical Divisions 1. Central Nervous System – tracts, cortexes, nuclei-- complete containment in the dorsal cavity Brain and Spinal Cord 2. Peripheral Nervous System – All nerves outside the CNS Spinal and Cranial Nerves *Limitation – Anatomical connectedness critical; any break limits communication *Benefit – physically protected from damage; speed of signal B. Physiological Divisions 1. Categorical to degree of control (awareness) A. Voluntary System – cognitive control, conscious awareness (occurs in cerebrum/advanced brain) B. Involuntary System – subconscious control, subconscious awareness (primitive brain/diencephalon, midbrain, pons, medulla)—“homeostatic levels” 2. Categorical to type of information communicated and the directed movement A. Sensory System (INPUT) – Environmental information (Somatic/External vs.
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Visceral/Internal), Movement along afferent
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