Optical_Spectroscopy_0212_handout

Optical_Spectroscopy_0212_handout - Optical Spectroscopy...

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PHYS 0212 Optical Spectroscopy and Atomic Structure 1 P N N P N N P Optical Spectroscopy and Atomic Structure This experiment has four parts: 2. The Continuous Spectrum 1. Spectroscope Setup 3. The Mercury (Hg) Spectrum 4. The Hydrogen (H) Spectrum and Atomic Structure An atom consists of electrons orbiting a dense, heavy nucleus made of protons and neutrons. - Your lab TA will demonstrate this. PHYS 0212 Optical Spectroscopy and Atomic Structure 2 Quantum Mechanics tells us that the angular momentum of an electron in orbit around the nucleus is quantized , which means it can only take on specific values. Therefore the radius of an electron orbit is also quantized. So electrons can only exist in certain orbits (sometimes called shells ) around the nucleus. n = 1 n = 2 n = 3 n = 4 Each orbit has an energy given by the Balmer Formula : 0 2 , 1,2,3, n E En n == For Hydrogen: 0 13.6 eV E = eV = electron-volt The energy of an electron in a 1.0 Volt potential. PHYS 0212 Optical Spectroscopy and Atomic Structure 3 n = 6 n = 10 n = 20 n = 2 Antinode Node Node Antinode 2 λ 2 Node Bohr pictured the electrons as standing waves on a circular string. PHYS 0212 Optical Spectroscopy and Atomic Structure 4 Energy Level Diagram 10 1, nEE 20 2, 4 30 3, 9 0 nE =∞ = 40 4, 16 Energy e 21 EE E =− 00 22 EE E ∆= 0 3 4 E E + 12 EEE E −− 0 3 4 E E Energy Absorbed Energy Emitted e To change orbits, an electron must absorb or emit energy exactly
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Optical_Spectroscopy_0212_handout - Optical Spectroscopy...

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