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chapter 11 - Chapter 11 Jovian Planet Systems 11.1 A...

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Chapter 11 Jovian Planet Systems
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11.1 A Different Kind of Planet Our goals for learning Are jovian planets all alike? What are jovian planets like on the inside? What is the weather like on jovian planets? Do jovian planets have magnetospheres like Earth’s?
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Are jovian planets all alike?
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Jovian Planet Composition Jupiter and Saturn Mostly H and He gas Uranus and Neptune – Mostly hydrogen compounds: water (H 2 O), methane (CH 4 ), ammonia (NH 3 ) Some H, He, and rock
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Density Differences 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune   Density (g/ cc) Uranus and Neptune are denser than Saturn because they have less H/He, proportionately
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Density Differences 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune   Density (g/ cc) But that explanation doesn’t work for Jupiter….
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Sizes of Jovian Planets Adding mass to a jovian planet compresses the underlying gas layers
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Sizes of Jovian Planets Greater compression is why Jupiter is not much larger than Saturn even though it is three times more massive Jovian planets with even more mass can be smaller than Jupiter
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Rotation and Shape Jovian planets are not quite spherical because of their rapid rotation
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What are jovian planets like on the inside?
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Interiors of Jovian Planets No solid surface. Layers under high pressure and temperatures. Cores (~10 Earth masses) made of hydrogen compounds, metals & rock The layers are different for the different planets. WHY?
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Inside Jupiter High pressures inside Jupiter cause phase of hydrogen to change with depth Hydrogen acts like a metal at great depths because its electrons move freely
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Inside Jupiter Core is thought to be made of rock, metals, and hydrogen compounds Core is about same size as Earth but 10 times as massive
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Comparing Jovian Interiors Models suggest cores of jovian planets have similar composition Lower pressures inside Uranus and Neptune mean no metallic hydrogen
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Jupiter’s Internal Heat Jupiter radiates twice as much energy it receives from Sun Energy probably comes from slow contraction of interior (releasing potential energy)
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Internal Heat of Other Planets Saturn also radiates twice as much energy it receives from Sun Energy probably comes from differentiation (helium rain) Neptune emits nearly twice as much energy as it recieves, but the source of that energy remains mysterious
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What is the weather like on jovian planets?
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Jupiter’s Atmosphere Hydrogen compounds in Jupiter form clouds Different cloud layers correspond to freezing points of different hydrogen compounds H 2 O NH 4 SH NH 3
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Jovian Planet Atmospheres Other jovian planets have cloud layers similar to Jupiter’s Different compounds make clouds of different colors
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Jupiter’s colors Ammonium sulfide clouds (NH 4 SH) reflect red/brown.
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