Unformatted text preview: HDFS 363 Human Development from Adolescence to Old Age
Lecture 12 Introduction to Early Adulthood Today: Introduction to early adulthood Physical development Death rates and causes Reproductive health When is a person an adult?
What are some indicators that a person is an adult in the United States? Role transition Subjective age The "biological clock" versus the "social clock" How old we FEEL may be influenced by the social expectations that others have for us. The "average" American is "Average" is now now much older than in the much older than it average in the past was in the past. Life transitions are socially defined. Three periods of the Gusii lifespan: Child | | | 1050 | | | elder circumcision eldest child marries As we leave adolescence, AGE becomes a less reliable predictor of individual development than it was earlier. Knowing a person's age doesn't tell us very much about that person's development.
So, in addition to agelinked approaches to the study of development, we can also gain much insight into development by focusing on the events in people's lives. Normative crisis model of adult development "Timing of events" model of adult development Physical Development in Early Adulthood Young adulthood is period of peak physical performance Peak strength in the striated muscles generally occurs in the mid to late 20s Visual acuity is at its best; other senses (except hearing) stay keen Small muscle strength and dexterity reaches a peak in the mid30's Grip Strength in Men (Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging) In many sports and activities, the peak of performance occurs AFTER the individual has reached his or her peak muscular strength. Elite performance in many sports depends on cognitive, as well as physical skills. Peak performance of athletes:
Sport Baseball pitchers batters Swimming Shortdistance running Mediumdistance running Longdistance running Tennis Golf Men 27 26.5-28 20 23 24 27 24 31 18 22 24 27 24 30 Age Women Endurance and aerobic fitness remains high in young adulthood.
V02 maximum oxygen uptake: Basil metabolic rate declines in adolescence and beyond. What is moderate exercise? walking briskly biking at speeds up to 10mph golf while pulling or carrying clubs fishing by casting from shore playing pingpong canoeing at 2 4mph weeding mowing with walking power mower vacuuming at least 30 minutes per day, 5 days a week Risk of death in the near future is highest for those who are least fit: The "least fit" group Most young adults in the United States are in good to excellent health.
(only about 5% have fair or poor health) In general, death rates are low for young adults, especially for females Causes of death in young adulthood:
Accidents (about 2/3 involve automobiles) Cancers Heart Disease Suicide AIDS Homicide The two things that kill the most Americans per year: Tobacco use: related to 400,000 deaths per year Obesity: related to 300,000 deaths per year Health habits in young adulthood will affect longevity! Health Issues: Reproductive Health Most young adults are sexually active Sexual excitement and arousal is quicker in younger men than in older men The reverse tends to be true for women, whose sexual responsiveness may increase throughout young adulthood. Infertility defined as the inability to conceive after at least one year of unprotected intercourse: About 7% of women in their early 20's are infertile 15% of women in their early 30's 28% of women in their late 30's Half of women in their 40's Two trends work against fertility in females as they age: Decline in the regularity with which an egg is released (especially after late 30's) More years of sexual exposure increases the chances of getting an STD which causes blockage Top causes of infertility on the female side: Failure to ovulate Blocked Fallopian tubes Endometriosis Fibroids, mucus or other uterine or cervical problems that prevent conception or implantation Top causes of infertility on the male side: Insufficient number of live, motile sperm Low motility (swimming ability) in sperm Males generally have few reproductive system problems at this age....
Testicular cancer is a risk that young adult males need to be aware of. It tends to affect younger men. PMS, depression, and depressive symptoms Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
Involves physical and emotional symptoms (fatigue, headaches, swelling, nausia, constipation, food cravings, anxiety, depression, etc) Is different from dysmenorrhea (common in adolescents and women in their 20s) PMS symptoms Generally appear 610 days before the menstrual period, and disappear shortly after the period. 310% of women suffer from moodrelated symptoms 10% have symptoms that interfere with school, work, or social life. Not just a "American problem" Recognition of this pattern goes back to at least the 1920's "Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder" is a proposed condition characterized by:
At least five of the following symptoms for most cycles during the past year: Markedly depressed mood, feeling of hopelessness, or selfdeprecating thoughts Marked anxiety, tension, feeling of being "keyed up" or "on edge" Marked affective lability Sense of being overwhelmed or out of control Persistent or marked anger or irritability or increased interpersonal conflicts Criteria (continued) Decreased interest in usual activities Difficulty concentrating Lethargy, fatigue or marked lack of energy Marked change in appetite, overeating, or specific food cravings Hypersomnia or insomnia Other physical symptoms such as breast tenderness or swelling, headaches, joint or muscle pain, a sensation of "bloating," weight gain. Major depression is more common in females than males In adolescence, females are 23 times more likely to experience depressive symptoms than males are. During young adulthood, about 15% of women and 8% of men will have at least one episode of major depression. Symptoms of depression: sleep disturbance (insomnia, night awaking, early morning awaking) appetite disturbance (either an increase or decrease in appetite) disturbance in motor function (either agitation, or a slowing down; sweating, anxiety) Symptoms of depression: pervasive sadness anger low energy excess emotion crying guilt inability to concentrate difficultly making decisions Depressed mood having some of these symptoms up to 30% of teenagers Hormonal changes at puberty may make females more vulnerable to depression Is there a connection between PMS and Depression? PMS and depression have similar symptoms Some of the same medications used to treat depression are also effective in about 60% of women with PMS symptoms. PMS isn't a case of "too much estrogen", but of differential sensitivity in the brain to the gonadotrophins in some women. Other approaches to the treatment of PMS include increasing carbohydrate intake, reducing salt and caffeine, exercise, stress reduction, mineral supplements. ...
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- Spring '04
- early adulthood, Premenstrual syndrome